Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Viruses and Bacteria Section 1: Viruses Section 2: Bacteria."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 20Viruses and BacteriaSection 1: VirusesSection 2: Bacteria
2 Section 1VirusesObjectives:Describe why a virus is not considered a living organism.Summarize the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus.Describe the basic structure of a virus.Summarize the steps of viral replication.Explain how HIV infects immune system cells.
3 Viruses Is a Virus Alive? Section 1VirusesIs a Virus Alive?Viruses do not have all the characteristics of life and are therefore not considered to be alive.Viruses do not grow, do not have homeostasis and do not metabolize.Viruses are pathogens-agents that cause disease.
4 Viruses Viral Structure Section 1VirusesViral StructureViruses consist of segments of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) contained in a protein coat, or capsid, and some have an envelope. It consists of lipids, and glycoproteins, which are proteins attached to carbohydrate molecules
5 Viruses Viral Reproduction Section 1VirusesViral ReproductionViruses replicate inside living cells. They enter a cell by injecting their genetic material into the cell, by slipping through tears in the plant cell wall, or by binding to molecules on the cell surface and triggering endocytosis.Lytic Cycle In bacteria viruses, the cycle of viral infection, replication, and cell destruction is part of the lytic cycle.Lysogenic Cycle In the lysogenic cycle, the viral genome replicates without destroying the host cell.
7 Viruses Viral Reproduction continued Section 1VirusesViral Reproduction continuedHost Cell Specificity Viruses are often species specific.Structure of HIV—an Enveloped Virus HIV replicates inside only human immune system cells, specifically white blood cells.
8 Viruses How HIV Infects Cells Section 1VirusesHow HIV Infects CellsAttachment HIV binds to human immune cells that contain CD4 receptors.Entry into Macrophages Macrophages contain CD4 receptors and CCR5 co-receptors, and this allows HIV to enter these cells.Replication HIV replicates inside the host macrophage, but does not kill the cell. Instead, the new viruses are released from the host by budding.AIDS HIV infection leads to the destruction of the body’s T cells and weakens the immune system. This can lead to AIDS.
10 Viruses Viral Diseases Section 1 Emerging viruses are geographically isolated viruses that cause disease in humans.Other classes of pathogens:Prions are infectious proteins that cause disease in certain animals. They are composed of proteins but have no nucleic acid. They cause normal proteins to misfold.Viroids are infectious RNA molecules that cause disease in plants. They are a single strand of RNA that has no capsid.
12 Section 2BacteriaObjectives:List seven differences between bacteria and eukaryotic cells.Describe three different ways bacteria can obtain energy.Describe the external and internal structure of Escherichia coli.Distinguish two ways that bacteria cause disease.Identify three ways that bacteria benefit humans.
13 Bacteria Bacterial Structure Section 2 Characteristics of Bacteria Bacteria differ from eukaryotes in theirInternal compartmentalization-no nucleusCell size-typically much smallerMulticellularity-all bacteria are single cellsChromosomes-circular in shapeReproduction-binary fissionFlagella-simple structures composed a single protein fiberPili-shorter, thicker outgrowths that allow bacteria to attach to surfacesMetabolic diversity-Anaerobic and Aerobic processes
14 Bacterial Cell Shapes A bacteria is one of three shapes: rod-shaped (bacillus), round-shaped (coccus), and spiral-shaped (spirillum)
15 Bacteria Bacterial Structure continued Section 2BacteriaBacterial Structure continuedBacteria can be classified according to their cell wall structure. Gram staining can be used to distinguish these two groups.Gram positiveGram negativeAntibiotics are chemicals that interfere with the life processes in bacteria. Gram staining determines which antibiotics are most effective.
17 Key Terms:Capsule: a gel-like layer found outside the cell wall and membrane.Endospores: a thick walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.Conjugation: a process in which two organisms exchange genetic material.
19 Bacteria Obtaining Energy Section 2BacteriaObtaining EnergyPhotosynthetic bacteria can be classified into four major groups: purple nonsulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and cyanobacteria.Green sulfur and Purple sulfur grow in anaerobic conditions.Chemoautotrophs obtain energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, or methane.Most bacteria are heterotrophs and many are aerobic.
20 Bacteria Pathogenic Bacteria Section 2BacteriaPathogenic BacteriaBacteria can cause disease by metabolizing nutrients in their host. They secrete enzymes that break down organic structures.Ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosisBacteria can cause disease by releasing toxins, which damage their host.Ex. Stapylococcus aureusBiowarfare is the deliberate exposure of people to biological toxins or pathogens such as bacteria or viruses.
21 Section 2BacteriaAntibioticsBacterial disease can be fought with soap, chemicals, and antibiotics.Mutations that confer resistance to antibiotics are strongly favored in bacterial populations being treated with an antibiotic.
23 Bacteria Importance of Bacteria Section 2BacteriaImportance of BacteriaBacteria are used to make foods, antibiotics, and other useful chemicals.Mining companies use bacteria to concentrate desired elements from low-grade ore. Bacteria are also used to clean the environment and cycle important chemicals in the environment.