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Biology Ch. 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology Ch. 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology Ch. 19

2 Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in
the presence of a nucleus. the makeup of their cell walls. size. the presence of a cell wall.

3 Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria
have cell walls. are prokaryotes. have two cell membranes. are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes.

4 Which of the following is NOT a way in which archaebacteria and eubacteria differ?
Archaebacteria lack an important carbohydrate found in the cell walls of eubacteria. The two groups have very different membrane lipids. Archaebacteria have gene sequences that are similar to those of eukaryotes. Archaebacteria follow the lytic cycle, while eubacteria follow the lysogenic cycle.

5 Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria?
methanogens eubacteria eukaryotes E. coli

6 The structure in the figure represents a(an)
virus. archaebacterium. methanogen. eubacterium.

7 Which structure or structures shown in the figure have key differences in eubacteria and archaebacteria? A, B, C A, B, E D only A only

8 The figure shows how prokaryotes can be identified by
the composition of their cell walls. their reaction to the Gram stain. their cell shapes. their methods for obtaining energy.

9 Which cell shape in the figure is called a coccus?
B C none of the above

10 When treated with Gram stain, Gram-positive eubacteria appear
violet. pink. yellow. orange.

11 Bacilli, cocci, and spirilla are
Gram stains. shapes of prokaryotes. methods of prokaryotic movement. ways that prokaryotes obtain energy.

12 Which of the following is(are) used to identify prokaryotes?
cell shape the way prokaryotes move the way prokaryotes obtain energy all of the above

13 Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph?
in your refrigerator in the darkness of the ocean in your digestive system near the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans

14 Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy
directly from the sun. directly from inorganic molecules. indirectly from organic molecules. indirectly from other organisms.

15 Most prokaryotes are heterotrophs. photoautotrophs. chemoautotrophs.

16 A method called Gram staining is used to tell
what shape a prokaryote has. how a prokaryote obtains energy. what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has. whether a prokaryote has flagella.

17 Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment?
carrying out photosynthesis recycling nutrients fixing nitrogen all of the above

18 Bacteria are sometimes called nature’s recyclers because they
undergo conjugation. break down nutrients in dead matter. can switch between respiration and fermentation. carry out photosynthesis.

19 Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots are called endospores. flagella. photoautotrophs. decomposers.

20 Nitrogen fixation involves each of the following EXCEPT
soybeans. Rhizobium. fertilizer. nodules on roots.

21 Which of the following is produced when bacteria break down complex compounds in sewage?
carbon dioxide gas purified water nitrogen all of the above

22 Humans use bacteria to clean up small oil spills.
mine minerals from the ground. synthesize drugs. all of the above

23 Bacteria living in extreme environments may be a good source of
antibiotics. heat-stable enzymes. nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Gram stains.

24 The outer protein coat of a virus is called a
DNA core. capsid. bacteriophage. tail sheath.

25 All viruses are made of proteins and
nucleic acids. prophages. bacteriophages. endospores.

26 A viral capsid functions to
bind the virus to the surface of a host cell. transcribe viral genes. force a host cell to make copies of the virus. destroy a host cell.

27 The instructions for making new copies of a virus are
a part of a virus’s capsid. coded in surface proteins attached to the protein coat. coded in either RNA or DNA. found only in bacteriophages.

28 What is the basic structure of a virus?
DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat a capsid surrounded by a protein coat a tail sheath surrounded by tail fibers a tiny cell surrounded by a cell wall

29 Viruses are all about the same size.
vary greatly in size and structure. rarely contain DNA or RNA. can be seen with a basic compound light microscope.

30 A lytic infection concludes with the
embedding of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA. production of a prophage. bursting of the host cell. production of messenger RNA.

31 A prophage is made of bacteriophages. carbohydrates. capsid proteins.
viral DNA.

32 Bacteriophages infect
other viruses. bacteria only. any available host cell. cells undergoing the lytic cycle.

33 Unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do NOT
inject their genetic material into the host cell. enter the lytic cycle. lyse the host cell right away. infect host cells.

34 During a lytic infection, the host cell is
destroyed. prepared for the lysogenic cycle. copied many times over. all of the above

35 Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease?
by capsids by nitrogen fixation by conjugation by releasing toxins

36 Bacteria that cause disease are called
viruses. pathogens. endospores. antibiotics.

37 A bacterial infection results when bacteria
break down the body’s tissues. lyse following the lytic cycle. live as obligate aerobes in the absence of oxygen. undergo conjugation inside the body.

38 Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium?
tooth decay tuberculosis AIDS Lyme disease

39 Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food
die at low temperatures. take longer to multiply at low temperatures. require light to live. grow more slowly in the dark.

40 Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control?
Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods. Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals. Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh conditions. Most bacteria do not cause food to spoil.

41 Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria?
refrigeration boiling chemical disinfection frying

42 Which of the following is a proper use of disinfectants?
as an antibiotic to start conjugation to sterilize a hospital to preserve foods

43 Which of the following is NOT a viral disease?
botulism AIDS measles polio

44 Viral diseases can be treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines. treated with vaccines and prevented with antibiotics. prevented with antibiotics but not treated with vaccines. prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics.

45 Plant viruses have a difficult time entering the cells they infect partly because
plant viruses are weaker than animal viruses. plant cells have tough cell walls. many plant viruses are spread by insects. plant viruses do not have a protein coat.

46 Viruses cause disease by
producing toxins that harm the body. reproducing independently inside the body. forming endospores in the body. disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium.

47 Scientists reason that archaebacteria may be the ancestors of eukaryotes. If this is true, then archaebacteria and eukaryotes share a common ancestor that is more recent than the common ancestor of archaebacteria and eubacteria. True False

48 Many archaebacteria live in extreme environments, such as in Utah’s Great Salt Lake.
True False

49 The figure shows the three shapes of viruses.
True False

50 The spiral-shaped organism labeled B in the figure is an example of a spirillum.
True False

51 The Gram-staining method applies only to archaebacteria.
True False

52 Plants and animals benefit from nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
True False

53 Bacteria can be used to synthesize drugs through genetic-engineering techniques.
True False

54 Bacteria are used in the production of a variety of foods and beverages.
True False

55 T4 is the name of a bacteriophage.
True False

56 The structure labeled D in the figure is called a tail fiber.
True False

57 Another name for the structure labeled A in the figure is head.
True False

58 The structure labeled A in the figure helps attach this virus to a host cell during a lytic infection. True False

59 Bacteria can cause disease by releasing toxins into the body.
True False

60 A disinfectant is a chemical solution that kills bacteria.
True False

61 An antibiotic is a preparation of weakened or killed virus or viral proteins.
True False

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