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Bacteria and Viruses 1 1. Eubacteria ________________________________ Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate) The cell wall protects them from.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria and Viruses 1 1. Eubacteria ________________________________ Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate) The cell wall protects them from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria and Viruses 1 1

2 Eubacteria ________________________________ Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate) The cell wall protects them from injury and defines their shape

3 ______________________ Lack the peptidoglycan found in eubacteria DNA found in archaebacteria are more like those found in eukaryotes ________________________________

4 Identifying Prokaryotes ____________________ Chemical nature of their cell walls (peptidoglycan) ____________________ The way they obtain nutrients

5 _____________ Bacilli: Rod shaped bacteria Cocci: Round shaped bacteria Spirilla: Spiral shaped bacteria Bacilli Spirilla 7000X Cocci Spirilla 400X

6 Autotrophs ________________: use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds and oxygen Chemoautotrophs: make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide

7 Metabolic Diversity: ______________________ Chemoheterotroph: take in organic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon Photoheterotroph: photosynthetic but also must take in organic compounds as a carbon source

8 Oxygen Supply Obligate aerobes: Requires a constant supply of oxygen to live Obligate anaerobes: _____________ _______________________________ Facultative anaerobes: Can survive with or without oxygen

9 ___________________________ Binary fission: This is a type of reproduction in which the bacterium doubles in size. Once it doubles in size, it replicates its DNA and divides in half. Conjugation: Two bacterial cells exchanges DNA through a hollow bridge called pili. Endospore: Spore that can remain dormant until favorable conditions for growth arise –Encloses its DNA and cytoplam –Used to survive harsh conditions Conjugation Binary Fission

10 Importance of Bacteria Decomposers: _______________________. Nitrogen fixers: Nitrogen makes up 80% of the atmosphere. Plants can’t use nitrogen gas directly. Nitrogen is used to make amino acids. Human Uses: Used in industry (wine, cheese, make drugs,etc.). –Symbiotic relationship with the intestine.

11 DiseaseBacteriumEffect on Body Strep ThroatStreptococcus pyogenes Fever, sore throat, swollen glands TuberculosisMycobacterium tuberculosis Fatigue, weight loss, mild fever, night sweats, chronic cough TetanusClostridium tetaniServer muscle spasms, paralysis, death Lyme diseaseBorrelia burgdorferi“Bulls-eye” rash at site of tick bite, fever, fatigue, headaches, muscle aches, joint aches Tooth DecayStreptococcus mutansDestruction of tooth enamel Diseases caused by Bacteria

12 Virus: What is a virus 1 1 ________________ Particles of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) Protein capsid ____________ T4 Bacteriophage Influenza virus Tobacco mosaic virus

13 _______________________ Host cell DIES in the lytic cycle 1.Virus injects its DNA into the cell 2.The cell then makes mRNA from the genes of the virus 3.The viral mRNA is translated into viral proteins 4.The virus uses the materials of the host cell to make thousands of copies of itself

14 Lytic (Cont.) 5.DNA produces new virus particles 6.Infected cell bursts 7.Releases hundreds of virus particles 8.These particles infect other cells

15 Lysogenic Cycle _________________________________ Prophage: Viral DNA is embedded in the host’s DNA The prophage may remain part of the DNA for years Prophage may be activated which removes itself from the host and can produce particles

16 Lysogenic cycle cont.

17 Retrovirus Retrovirus: Virus that contains RNA instead of DNA Genetic material is copied backwards –RNA to DNA _________________ AIDS Virus

18 DiseaseEffect on BodyTransmission Influenza body aches, fever, sore throat, fatigue, headache, dry cough Contact w/ contaminated objects; droplet inhalation Aids Helper T cells, which are needed for normal immune system, are destroyed Contact w/ contaminated blood or bodily fluids Warts Non-cancerous growths on the skin Contact w/ warts Polio Fever, headache, muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing Droplet inhalation Hepatitis A Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, diarrhea, joint pain Human wastes, contaminated water and food Diseases caused by Viruses

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