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Voices of Protest Chapter 19.1

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1 Voices of Protest Chapter 19.1
Demonstration for Equal Rights Amendment Chapter 19.1

2 A Woman’s Place Traditional wedding couple: she could look forward to fifty years of baking cookies

3 What are the origins of the Women’s Movement?
Outgrowth of civil rights movement: women built on it Saw themselves as treated like second class citizens Expected to make sandwiches, type, stay at home Betty Friedan “The Feminine Mystique” “Is this It?” Above: traditional family supper; below: Betty Friedan poses

4 How did reproductive rights change in the 60s and 70s?
The Pill FDA approved sale in 1960 Women became more health conscious Some felt greater freedom Pregnant women were usually fired from their jobs Roe v. Wade (1973) legalized 1st trimester abortion Above: The Pill (month’s supply); below: anti-abortion protests

5 Describe NOW and its goals:
NOW- National Organization of Women Goals was full equality for women Constitutional amendment (ERA) Maternity leave Better day care centers Equal/ non-segregated education Equal job opportunities Abortion rights 270 thousand members by 1990 Above: NOW logo; below: NOW parade

6 Describe the radical feminists:
Younger, smaller groups and more ‘dramatic’ than NOW Ridiculed the 1968 Miss America pageant by crowning sheep Threw girdles, bras, curlers, and other symbols of “feminine enslavement” into the freedom trashcan Above: 1960s Miss America; below: feminist protestors

7 Radical Feminists Capture from clip on radical feminists

8 Gloria Steinem Presentation
A young woman (not Gloria) serves drinks in a Playboy bunny suit

9 Describe the successes of the Women’s Liberation movement in the 1970s:
Gloria Steinem & Ms. Magazine Wrote about issues Cosmo and Good Housekeeping avoided Popularized “Ms.” instead of Miss or Mrs. Women’s Studies appeared in universities (you could major in it) By 1980: 51% of undergrads were female 30% of doctorate degrees female Above: A Playboy bunny serves drinks

10 Phyllis Schlafly Presentation
Schlafly gives an anti-feminist speech

11 Who was Phyllis Schlafly?
Conservative Anti-feminist Lawyer and author The Power of the Positive Woman (1977) Stated that women primary duty uphold traditional values Church, family, country Argued that feminists did not represent all women Led STOP ERA movement Said it would lead to unisex bathrooms, women in combat, and the destruction of the traditional family Above and below: Phyllis Schlafly

12 How did Congress and the Courts react to the Feminist Movement?
Affirmative Action Plan (1971) Forced Businesses working with US Gov to have a certain percentage of females Education Amendments Act (1972) Outlawed sexual discrimination in education Forced schools to change classes cooking no longer limited to girls, shop to boys US military opened up academies of Annapolis and West Point to female cadets Above: home economics in the 1950s Below:

13 Describe the ERA and the fight for its ratification:
Photo of an ERA rally in this century (web address on banner, reference to 9-11 on sign)

14 Describe the ERA and the fight for its ratification:
“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” Amendment overwhelmingly approved by Congress In order for the Amendment to be added to the Constitution, 38 States needed to ratify it (3/4 of states). 30 did by 1973 Conservatives fought vigorously against the Amendment Fear that it would change social and family roles By the 1982 deadline, NOW’s fight for the amendment died, and Congress did not extend the deadline.

15 How did the Feminist movement affect social and gender relationships?
Below: cartoon makes the serious point that chivalry made more sense when tasks were dangerous and physically demanding Marriage postponed Women entered college to prepare for careers Divorce rate climbed More socially acceptable to leave unsatisfying marriage Socially acceptable behavior uncertain What was considered gentlemanly behavior changed Should a man hold the door for a lady or is that being a chauvinist?

16 What were the results of the Feminist Movement?
More women in the workplace Ms. Became title in business Took marital status out of workplace Two-career family became norm Women continued to rise in status Sandra Day O'Connor (1st female justice in Supreme Court in 1981) Geraldine Ferraro (Democratic VP candidate in 1984) Sally Ride (1st female in space in 1983) Hillary Rodham Clinton!!! Below: Gloria Steinem on 30th anniversary cover of the magazine she founded

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