Presentation on theme: "Political and Economic Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Political and Economic Systems Chapter 3 Section 2Political and Economic Systems
2 Two important traits of any culture. Political SystemsEconomic SystemsGovernments reflect beliefs aboutAuthorityIndependenceHuman rights.Economic systems reflect people’s ideas about the use ofResourcesDistribution of wealth.
3 The World’s Countries Nearly 200 independent countries. Vary greatly in…SizeMilitary PowerNatural ResourcesEconomic Importance**** Each country has 4 characteristics that define it as a country****TerritoryPopulationSovereigntyA government
4 TerritoryIncludes land, water and natural resources within a country’s boundaries.Countries range in size.Resources = wealth.Several factors play a key role in boundary separation. Ex. Rivers, mountains, wars, treatyGeographic factors often influence a nation’s power to control territory.
5 US compared to RussiaNotice the size of the United States is smaller than Russia
7 Boundary separationRecall boundaries shift over time due to wars, treaties and river and mountain boundaries.
8 Notice the mountains and the recall the earlier effect on boundary lines it had.
9 PopulationCitizens of a nation are assured protection by their government.Population varies. Some countries are small but densely populated.Some contain wide diversity.
10 Sovereignty A sovereign country has the power to act independently deal equally with other free countriesprotect its territory and citizens.** Geographic factors can help a nation defend and maintain its sovereignty. Ex. United Kingdom, Switzerland, Russia
11 Types of Government Structures Unitary System = One central government runs the nation. (Japan)Federation = Some powers are given to national government and other powers are reserved for local governments. (USA)Confederation = Smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government limited powers.
12 Government AuthorityAuthoritarian Governments – Leader holds all, or nearly all, political power.Dictatorship – Most common authoritarian govt., power is concentrated in a small group or even single person.Totalitarianism – Most extreme form of dictatorship. Govt. tries to control every part of society, politics, economy and people’s personal lives.
13 Gov. Authority continued… Monarchy = Throughout much of history, the most common kind of authoritarian govt Monarchs inherit their positions by being born into the ruling family.Democracy = Any country in which the people choose their leaders and have the power to set government policy.
14 Types of Economic Systems Traditional Economy – little surplus produced, little need for markets where people buy and sell goods.Market Economy – gives greatFreedom to individuals and groups. (Capitalism)-Private individuals and groups make production decisions. (What? How much to make and cost?)-Decisions are influenced by laws of supply and demand.-Driven by individuals wants to increaseWell being.
16 Command EconomyGovernment decides what and how much to produce, where economic activities will be located, and what prices will be charged for goods and services. (ex. Communism)Production costs might be higher than consumer cost.
17 Mixed EconomyEconomic systems of some nations include a mix of traditional, command, and market economies. (Ex. Socialism)Socialists believe that wealth should be distributed more equally and that everyone is entitled to certain goods and services.