Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3. Stuck on an island Look at the island drawn on the board You a stranded on the very small island with 100 other people Where would you live?"— Presentation transcript:
Stuck on an island Look at the island drawn on the board You a stranded on the very small island with 100 other people Where would you live? Why would you live there?
Human Geography The study of populations – birth, marriage, migration, death, beliefs, actions, etc.
How have humans changed their environment? How has the environment changed humans? Check page 81 for clues
Population Density Average number of people living in a given area –Can be misleading. ie: Egypt has more than 90% desert, nearly all Egyptians live along the Nile River –Arable population density Land that can be farmed
Important Vocabulary Birthrate: number of live births each year per 1000 people Death rate: the number of deaths each year per 1000 people Immigrants: people who move into the country Emigrants: people who leave the country to live elsewhere Urbanization: growth of city populations Rural: countryside Culture: The way of life that distinguishes people. ie: government, language, religion, customs and beliefs.
Important Vocabulary cont… Diffusion: the spread of cultural traits from one culture to another Acculturation: the process of adapting trait from other cultures Culture hearth: a place where important ideas begin and from which they spread to surrounding cultures (historical)
Effects on Culture Social organization: organizing members into smaller units. Also includes social classes – ranking people into status Language: people who speak the same language generally share the same customs – some cultures speak many different languages Religion: supports the values that a group of people consider important Cultural landscapes: use of natural resources and technology Cultural change: internal and external influences
Countries Defined by four different characteristics –Clearly defined territory –Population –Sovereignty – freedom from outside control –Government
Types of Government Unitary – one central government runs the nation –Central government makes laws for the entire nation –Examples: Great Britain and Japan
Types of Government Federal –Some powers are given to the national government –Other powers are given to the states –Example: United States
Types of Government Confederation –Smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government only very limited powers –Examples: some independent countries after the fall of the Soviet Union
Government Authorities Dictatorship –Power is concentrated in a small group or single person –Most use military force –Most people are not allowed to express opinions
Government Authorities Totalitarianism –Extreme form of dictatorship –Government controls every part of society Politics, economy, personal lives Example: Nazi Germany under Hitler or Soviet Union under Stalin
Government Authorities Monarchy –Kings, queens, pharaohs, shahs, sultans – inherit their positions by being born into the ruling family –Past, monarchs often rules with dictatorial power –Now, nearly all monarchies are constitutional monarchies Example: Great Britain
Government Authorities Democracy –People choose their leaders and have the power to set government policy –All adults have the right to choose their representation –Example: United States
Types of Economic Systems Capitalist –People as consumers help determine what will be produced –Called a market economy –Under pure capitalism – government would take no part in the economy –Example: United States – not a pure capitalism government
Types of Economic Systems Communism –The state makes all economic decisions –States owns and operates all major farms and factories –Government decides what products will be made
Types of Economic Systems Socialism –Philosophy is : “for the good of the society as a whole, the state should own and run basic industries such as transportation, communications, banking, etc.” –Mixed economies – public and private enterprises –Belief that wealth should be distributed more equally
Important Vocabulary Natural resources: materials that people take from the natural environment to survive and to satisfy their needs Renewable resources: environment can continue to supply or replace the resources. ie: soil Nonrenewable resources: cannot be replaced once they have been used. ie: fossil fuels Fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas – formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals Nuclear energy: the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor to release their stored energy Geothermal energy: energy that comes from the earth’s internal heat Solar energy: energy produced by the sun
Important Vocabulary cont… Developed countries: a modern industrial country with a well-developed economy Developing countries: a country with relatively low industrial product, often lacking modern technology Gross national product (GNP): total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year Per capita (GNP): gross national product of a country divided by the country’s total population
Energy Sources Fossil Fuels – most modern industrialized countries depend heavily on fossil fuels Nuclear energy Geothermal energy Solar energy
Economic Activities Ways in which people make their living – see map on page 104 Manufacturing – turning raw materials into finished products Gatherers and herders Subsistence farming – people only grow enough for their own needs Commercial farming – farmers raise crops and livestock to sell in the market
Test on Tuesday You can use notes The notes must be on an index card provided by me (Mrs. Larsen) Cannot share notes during test Can use front and back of index card No other notes, papers, or books can be used