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The Human Mosaic Chapter 7

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1 The Human Mosaic Chapter 7
Folk Geography The Human Mosaic Chapter 7

2 Differences between popular and folk culture
Popular culture Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing norms Large heterogeneous groups Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing Pronounced division of labor leading to establishment of specialized professions Police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order

3 Differences between popular and folk culture
Popular culture Money based economy prevails Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent Item is more quickly or cheaply produced Easier or time-saving to use Lends prestige to owner

4 Differences between popular and folk culture
Made up of people who maintain the traditional Describes people who live in an old-fashioned way-simpler life-style Rural, cohesive, conservative, largely self-sufficient group, homogeneous in custom Strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals Tradition is paramount — change comes infrequently and slowly

5 Differences between popular and folk culture
Little specialization in labor though duties may vary between genders Subsistence economy prevails Individualism and social classes are weakly developed In parts of the less-developed world, folk cultures remain common Industrialized countries no longer have unaltered folk cultures

6 Differences between popular and folk culture
The Amish in the United States Perhaps the nearest modem equivalent in Anglo-America German-American farming sect Largely renounces products and labor-saving devices of the industrial age Horse-drawn buggies still used, and faithful own no autos or appliances Central religion concept of demut, ”humility,” reflects weakness of individualism and social class Rarely marry outside their sect

7 Differences between popular and folk culture
Typically, bearers of folk culture combine folk and nonfolk elements in their lives Includes both material and nonmaterial elements Material culture includes all objects or “things” made and used by members of a cultural group—material elements are visible Nomnaterial culture, including folklore, can be defined as oral, including the wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and customs Other aspects of nonmaterial culture include dialects, religions, and worldviews Folk geography—defined as the study of the spatial patterns and ecology of folklife

8 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion
Folk Ecology Cultural Integration in Folk Geography Folk Landscapes

9 Material folk culture regions
Vestiges of material folk culture remain in various parts of the United States and Canada Material artifacts of 15 culture regions in North America survive in some abundance though they are in general decline


11 Material folk culture regions
Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Germanized Pennsylvanian folk region—has an unusual SwissGerman type of barn Yankee folk region—traditional gravestone art, with “winged death heads,” and barns attached to the rear of houses


13 Material folk culture regions
Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Upland South region—notched-log construction, used in building a variety of distinctive house types such as the “dogtrot”


15 Material folk culture regions
Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture African-American folk region—scraped-earth cemetery, banjo that originated in Africa, and head scarfs worn by women


17 Material folk culture regions
Each region possesses many distinctive items of material culture Quebec French folk region-grist windmills with stone towers, and a bowling game played with small metal balls Mormon folk culture — distinctive hay derricks and gridiron farm villages Western plains ranching folk culture — the “beef wheel,” a windlass used during butchering

18 Quebec

19 Quebec Petanque, a bowling game played with metal balls, diffused to Canada with French immigrants in the 16th century. It has persisted as one aspect of Quebec French folk region.


21 Folk food regions Traditional foods of folk cultures probably endure longer than any other trait In Latin America, folk cultures remain vivid with diverse culinary traditions


23 Folk food regions Mexico—abundant use of chili peppers in cooking and maize for tortillas Caribbean areas — combined rice-bean dishes and various rum drinks Amazonian region — monkey and caiman Brazil — cuscuz (cooked grain) and sugarcane brandy Pampas style — carne asada (roasted beef), wine and yerba mate (herbal tea) Pacific-coastal Creole — manjar blanco (a pudding)

24 Folk food regions Latin American foods derive from Amerindians, Africans, Spaniards, and Portuguese Pattern of Latin American is not simple and culinary regions are not as homogeneous as the map we saw suggests


26 Folklore regions Displays regional contrasts in much the same way as material folk culture Folk geographers consider diverse nonmaterial phenomena as folktales, dance, music, myths, legends, and proverbs Most thoroughly studied in Europe First research appeared early in the nineteenth century We know more about vanished folk cultures than surviving ones Example of Switzerland


28 Folklore regions Four cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Northern tradition Unaccompanied solo singing in hard, open-voiced clear tones Based on British ballads

29 Folklore regions Four cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Southern tradition Unison singing is rare Solo is high-pitched and nasal Combines English and Scotch-Irish elements Ballads more guilt-ridden and violent than those of the North

30 Folklore regions Four cultural folk-song regions of North America as recognized by Alan Lomax Western style-simply a blend of the Southern and Northern traditions African-American tradition Contains both African and British elements Polyrhythmic songs of labor and worship with instrumental accompaniment Chorus group singing, clapping, body swaying, and strong, surging beat Each tradition shows distinctive melodies, instrumentation, and motifs

31 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion
Folk Ecology Cultural Integration in Folk Geography Folk Landscapes

32 Folk cultural diffusion
Diffuses by the same methods as other cultural elements, but more slowly Weakly developed social stratification tends to retard hierarchical diffusion Inherent conservatism produces resistance to change Essential difference between folk and popular culture is speed by which expansion diffusion occurs

33 Netherlands The town of Bunschoten Spakensburg is one of several in the Netherlands retaining elements of folk tradition. Many people continue to dress in traditional garb. Since costumes differ regionally, an expert can tell where a person is from by her clothing.

34 Folk cultural diffusion
Folk songs Slow progress of expansion diffusion in Anglo-America religious folk songs in the United States Eighteenth century core area based mainly in Yankee Puritan folk culture White spiritual songs spread southwest into the Upland South Today, still retain greatest acceptance in Upland South Disappearance from northern source region may be because of urbanization and popularization of culture in the North


36 Folk cultural diffusion
Folk songs Simple folk melodies of the spirituals diffused by means of outdoor “revivals” and “camp-meetings” Non-English-speaking people and non-protestants were little influenced by spiritual movement Language and religion proved absorbing barriers to diffusion French Canadians and Louisiana French were not affected by the movement

37 Agricultural fairs Originated in the Yankee region, spread west and southwest by expansion diffusion A custom rooted in medieval European folk tradition First American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1810 Idea gained favor throughout Western New England and adjacent Hudson Valley Diffused into the Midwest where it gained its widest acceptance


39 Agricultural fairs Originated in the Yankee region, spread west and southwest by expansion diffusion A custom rooted in medieval European folk tradition First American agricultural fair was held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1810 Idea gained favor throughout Western New England and adjacent Hudson Valley Diffused into the Midwest where it gained its widest acceptance


41 Agricultural fairs Normally promoted by agricultural societies
Originally educational in purpose Farmers could learn about improved methods and breeds Entertainment function added — racetrack and midway Competition for prizes for superior agricultural products became common By the early twentieth century, fairs had diffused through most of the United States

42 Hay stackers Mountain Western American folk culture produced innovations Beaverslide hay stacker Originated in 1907 in Montana’s Big Hole Valley Because of recent origin, we know more about its diffusion 30-odd feet tall, wooden ramp structure used to raise hay to the top of a stack


44 Hay stackers Beaverslide hay stacker
Employed horsepower to pull a basket up an inclined surface Use spread to at least eight nearby states and into three Canadian provinces


46 Blowguns Often past diffusion of a folk culture item is not clearly known or understood, which presents problems of interpretation Example of the blowgun — long, hollow tube through which a projectile is blown by force of breath Geographer Stephen Jett mapped distribution of blowgun Found among folk societies in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres Used from the island of Madagascar to Amazonian jungles of South America

47 Blowguns

48 Blowguns

49 Blowguns Apparently first invented by Indonesian people on the island of Borneo Diffused with the Austronesian linguistic group Spread through much of the equatorial island belt of Eastern Hemisphere Hard to account for its presence among Amerindian groups in Western Hemisphere Was it independently invented by Amerindians? Was it brought by relocation diffusion in pre-Columbian times? Did it spread to New World after European discovery of America? No answers to above questions

50 African Stone Game, Malawi

51 African Stone Game, Malawi
These men are playing a game commonly known as mancala. Archaeological evidence shows that the game was played in ancient times in many locations in Africa and Asia including Indonesia.

52 African Stone Game, Malawi
The 200 million years ago existence of Pangaea, a single landmass that subsequently broke apart with continental drift, would account for the wide distribution of the stone game. Today it is sold in stores across America – an element of folk culture in a world of popular culture.

53 Blowguns Nonliterate condition of many folk cultures precludes written records that might reveal diffusion Jett favors transpacific diffusion from Indonesia before the time of Columbus You must explain why it is not found in the South Pacific islands and Africa If you support independent invention, you must accept an identical device was invented two times Cultural diffusion presents such problems

54 Blowguns Independent invention is always possible
Carl Sauer’s proposal that plant domestication occurred independently in both hemispheres helped free cultural geographers from deterministic view that each invention had a single origin If one or more nonfunctional features, of blowguns, such as a decorative motif, occurred in both hemispheres — diffusion would be the logical conclusion

55 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion
Folk Ecology Cultural Integration in Folk Geography Folk Landscapes

56 Folk ecology Folk group’s close relationship with the physical environment Adaptive strategies possess sustainability Livelihood gained directly through primary activities — farming, herding, hunting, gathering, and fishing Languages bear vocabularies required to exploit the habitat Religions act to mitigate environmental hazards

57 Folk ecology Folk tales honor great hunters
Proverbs offer wisdom concerning weather and proper time for planting Architecture reflects local building materials and climate One is tempted to conclude folkways exist to facilitate the adjustment to physical environment It is easy to believe the path of environmental determinism


59 Folk ecology Folkways involve more than merely cultural adaptation
A variety of folk cultures can exist in any particular ecosystem They are not enslaved and wholly shaped by their physical surroundings Not necessarily true that they live in close harmony with their environment Often soil erosion, deforestation, and overkill of wild animals can be attributed to traditional rural folk

60 Geophagy Defined—the eating of earth
Most common in parts of Africa and in the American South among Americans of African ancestry Certain kinds of clay are the preferred earth for eating

61 Geophagy In African source regions, clays are consumed for a variety of reasons As a treatment for certain diseases and parasites Provides nutrients for pregnant women and growing children Consumed as part of religious ceremonies In the African-American folk region of the South coastal plain, geophagy is confined mainly to pregnant black women and to black children under the age of five


63 Folk medicine Common to treat diseases and disorders with drugs and medicines derived from the root, bark, blossom, or fruit of plants In the United States, folk medicine is best preserved in the Upland South Particularly southern Appalachia On some Indian reservations The Mexican borderland

64 Folk medicine Many folk cures have proven effectiveness
Root digging in the Appalachians Much of the produce is now funneled to dealers, who serve a larger market Remains at heart a folk enterprise carried on in the old ways Requires the traditional through knowledge of the plant environment


66 Folk medicine Mexican folk culture region along the southern border of Texas Still widely practiced by curanderos, or “curers” Over four hundred medicines derived from wild and domestic plants Perpetuates a tradition rooted in sixteenth century Indian and Spanish source

67 Folk medicine Local folk medicine along the Texas southern border is based on the belief health and welfare depend on harmony between natural and supernatural Disease and misfortune thought to involve some disharmony The curandero strives to restore harmony by use of counseling and botanical medicines In recent years fewer people have sought herbal remedies for infections, sprains, or broken bones Curanderos now treat more cancer, diabetes, and hypertension than before In response to change, some curanderos have become virtual paramedics and employ antibiotics in some cures

68 Folk Medicine in Zimbabwe

69 Folk Medicine in Zimbabwe
Traditional healers in Africa use an array of environmental products for rituals and curatives. Various roots, seeds, and horns, as well as skins from endangered animals can be seen in this healer’s hut. In African culture, traditional medical practitioners are considered influential spiritual leaders.

70 Folk Medicine in Zimbabwe
Some base their reputation on knowledge of biotica, some claim supernatural diagnostic and healing powers, and others are witch doctors able to intercept or exorcise evil spirits. All use plant and animal materials in their word.

71 Environmental perception
When folk culture groups, or individuals, migrate they seek environments similar to their own homelands They function best in similar environments because the lore of the land passed down relates to one particular ecosystem Overpopulation or other “push’ factors cause folk groups to migrate


73 Environmental perception
Migration of Upland Southerners from Appalachia between 1830 and 1930 Moved as Appalachians filled up Normally moved in clan or extended-family groups Initially found environmental twin of Appalachians in the Ozark-Ouachita Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas Later, others sought out hollows, coves, and gaps of the central Texas Hill Country Between 1880 and 1930 some 15,000 migrated to the Cascade and coastal mountain ranges of Washington State

74 Environmental perception
People so close to nature remain sensitive to subtle environmental qualities “Planting by the signs,” is still found among folk farmers in the United States and elsewhere

75 Environmental perception
Folk groups are much more observant of their ecosystems than those in popular culture Folk groups strive for harmony with nature, though they do not always achieve it Often ascribe animistic religious sanctity to environmental forces and particular parts of their habitat Many people today lament the loss of a closeness to nature Once the closeness of nature is lost, it is impossible to regain because it was the product of centuries of trial and error

76 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion
Folk Ecology Cultural Integration in Folk Geography Folk Landscapes

77 Cultural integration in folk geography
Interaction between folk and popular cultures Few folk groups escape some interaction with the larger world A lively exchange is constantly on-going between folk and popular cultures Most commonly, the folk absorb ideas filtering down from popular culture

78 Cuzco, Peru

79 Cuzco, Peru Cuzco, an Inca capital, is a major tourist destinations. Here, llama wool sweaters, ponchos, and rugs are displayed for the tourist trade. Woven on hand-looms, they have natural wool

80 Cuzco, Peru colors or are colored with mineral or vegetable dyes.
Similar products are also produced by factory machines using chemical dyes for trendy colors for appeal to mass market.

81 Cultural integration in folk geography
Interaction between folk and popular cultures Occasionally elements of folk culture penetrate the popular society Folk handicrafts and arts often fetch high prices among city dwellers They may exhibit quality, attention to detail, and uniqueness absent in factory-made goods Some folk goods are revised to make them more marketable Popular folk items include-Irish fisherman sweaters, Shaker furniture, and Panamanian Indian molas

82 Mountain moonshine Home manufacture of corn whiskey in the Upland South has been going on since the early pioneering days of the 1700s Probably diffused to America with the pioneering Scotch-Irish The word whisky has a Celtic origin, probably from the Scottish Gaelic uisge beatha (“water of life”) Home manufacture of whisky has occurred in many Appalachian hill settlements for 200 years


84 Mountain moonshine Whiskey making withstood the prohibitionist attitudes of the nineteenth century religious revival Many mountaineers are devout Baptists or Methodists, but defied antiliquor teachings Many mountain people proved very willing to vote their areas legally “dry” Corn whiskey is very persistent in the folk diet

85 Mountain moonshine Traditionally corn liquor was intended mainly for family consumption Over the years, Appalachian moonshine began to find its way to market Proved the best way for hill folk to participate in the money economy Converted a bulky grain crop of low cash value in a compact beverage of high value per unit of weight

86 Mountain moonshine Early as 1791, the U.S. federal government began taxing manufacturers of whiskey From the beginning, mountaineers found ways to avoid the tax Stills lay concealed in remote coves and hollows to escape detection When stills were discovered and destroyed, new ones in different locations replaced them Revenuers were no more successful in stopping whisky making than the churches had been


88 Mountain moonshine The important effect was mountain folk accepted markets offered by popular culture but rejected its legal and political institutions By the 1950s, some 25,000 gallons of white lightning reached the market each week from the counties of eastern Tennessee alone In spite of numerous raids by federal authorities, production continued unabated Today, a substantial amount of illicit whisky still reaches markets from southern Appalachia

89 Mountain moonshine Whiskey production, legal and illegal, in Kentucky and Tennessee represents an impressive survival of folk industry to serve a market in popular society Illegal whisky production and popular culture integration led to the creation of the “folk automobile” A fast vehicle needed to outrun the law, but humble in appearance Some have claimed these vehicles were the forerunners of the basic American stock car Stock-car racing then is considered another result of interplay between folk and popular cultures


91 Country and Western music
Upland Southern folk music had a very impressive impact upon American popular culture Derived to a great degree, from folk ballads of English and Scotch-Irish, who settled in the upland-South in colonial times Some have hypothesized use of the fiddle (violin) is an effort to recapture sounds of the Celtic Scottish bagpipe Gradually, Upland Southern folk music absorbed influences of the American social experience

92 Country and Western music
Derived to a great degree, from folk ballads of English and Scotch-Irish, who settled in the upland-South in colonial times Became a composite of Old World and New World folk traditions Long remained confined to the traditional society that developed it Dealt with themes such as love and hate, happiness and sorrow, comedy and tragedy Gave expression to a unique life-style and a particular land

93 Country and Western music
Entry of country music into popular culture began about the time of World War I Diffusion was facilitated by the invention of the radio Popularization brought changes Small number of songs in folk culture exploded with the popular culture Electrical amplification needed in crowded noisy night spots produced a curious mixture with the use of the electric guitar Themes of lyrics increasingly addressed life in the popular culture

94 Country and Western music
Bluegrass, one of the many styles of country music, emerged in the 1930s Developed by Bill Monroe Unique sound is achieved by the joining of a lead banjo with fiddle, guitar, mandolin, and string bass Using only electric instruments keep it faithful to its origins High-pitched, emotional vocal sound clearly reveals derivation from Scottish church singing

95 Country and Western music
Bluegrass, one of the many styles of country music, emerged in the 1930s Acceptance remains greatest in its Upland Southern core area in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina Most performers come from this core area Music retains strong identification with Appalachian places


97 Country and Western music
Impact of migration of Upland Southern folk on bluegrass music Migrated to Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma plus the Depression era movement of “Okies” and “Arkies” to the Central Valley of California Provided natural areas for bluegrass expansion in the mid-twentieth century

98 Culture Regions Folk Culture Regions Folk Cultural Diffusion
Folk Ecology Cultural Integration in Folk Geography Folk Landscapes

99 Folk landscapes Folk architecture most visible aspect of the landscape
Comes from the memory of traditional people Built on mental images that change little from one generation to the next Folk buildings are extensions of a people and their region Provide the unique character of each district or province Offer a highly visible aspect of the human mosaic


101 Folk Architecture: Maasai House, Kenya
The Maasai are pastoralists who bring their cattle into their circular housing compounds (engangs or manyattas) at night. Maasai bomas (houses) are built by women. Latticed frames are constructed with termite, ant and beetle resistant wood poles, insulated with packed leaves, and covered with cattle dung readily available in the engang.

102 Folk Architecture: Maasai House, Kenya
A snail-shell entry inhibits entry of human or animal intruders. Lattice sleeping platforms covered with cowhide are attached to internal walls. There are no windows, only vents for the central fire. Insect damage and leakage call for ongoing maintenance. Using plastic sheeting as a roof cover is a modern luxury few can afford.

103 Folk landscapes Seek in folk architecture the traditional, the conservative, and the functional Expect from it a simple beauty Harmony with the physical environment A visible expression of folk culture

104 Building materials One way we classify folk houses and farmsteads is by the type of building materials used


106 Building materials Structures tend to blend nicely with the natural landscape Farm dwellings range from: massive houses of stone for permanency, to temporary brush thatch huts



109 Building materials Environmental conditions influence choice of construction materials) Climate Vegetation Geomorphology Shifting cultivators of tropical rain forests build houses of poles and leaves



112 Building materials Sedentary subsistence farming peoples of adjacent highlands, oases, and river valleys of the Old World zone Rely principally on earthen construction Sun-dried (adobe) bricks Pounded earth In more prosperous regions, kiln-baked bricks are available People in the tropical grasslands, especially in Africa, construct thatched houses from coarse grasses and thorn bushes

113 Building materials Buildings of Mediterranean farmers and some rural residents of interior Indian and the Andean highlands Most live in rocky, deforested lands Use stone as principal building material Create entire landscapes of stone Walls, roofs, terraces, streets, and fences Lends an air of permanence to the landscape

114 China

115 Folk architecture: China
The Kazak practice transhumance, spending the summer with their horses, goats, sheep and cattle in high pastures of the Tien Shan (Heavenly Mountains) of northwestern China. These yurts have wooden trellis walls and are covered with felt which is pressed animal hair.

116 Folk architecture: China
The top flap can be opened to vent a central fire or closed to keep out rain. As winter approaches, the yurt is dismantled and carried by pack animals to lower elevations.

117 Folk architecture: China
Many Kazak now winter in Chinese style, mud-brick, sod-roofed houses. Yurts are experiencing technological change as wood gives way to plastic and felt to canvas.

118 Building materials Housing in the middle and higher latitudes
Houses made of wood where timber is abundant In the United States, log cabins and later frame houses Folk houses of northern Europe and in the mountains of eastern Australia are made of wood



121 Building materials Housing in the middle and higher latitudes
In some deforested regions — Central Europe and parts of China Farmers built half-timbered houses Framework of hardwood beams with fill in the interstices of some other material Sod or turf houses typify prairie and tundra areas Russian steppes In pioneer times, the American Great Plains Nomadic herders often live in portable tents made of skins or wool

122 Floor plan Unit farmstead
Single structure where family, farm animals, and storage facilities share space In simplest form is one storied — People and animals occupy different ends of structure More complex ones are multi-storied arranged so people and livestock live on different levels



125 Floor plan Communal unit housing common among some shifting cultivators Multiple families live under the same roof Sleeping and cooking done in separate alcoves Living space is shared

126 Floor plan Communal unit housing common among some shifting cultivators Example — the Sarawak longhouse found on the Malaysian portion of the island of Borneo Accommodates between 5 and 8 nuclear families An elongated dwelling Raised above forest floor on stilts Reflect a clan or tribal social organization

127 Folk Architecture: Manali, India

128 Folk Architecture: Manali, India
This house has been constructed by the Kullu people who live in the lower Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. This is a steeply sloped, rocky and forested area and people make the best use of local materials.

129 Folk Architecture: Manali, India
Noted for their woodwork, the Kulli carve and paint religious and tribal designs to propitiate the gods and ward off evil The substantial stone roof will support a heavy winter snowfall. Fodder and cattle are kept below the living quarters.

130 Floor plan Most common are farmsteads where the house, barn, and stalls occupy separate buildings Example of the courtyard farmstead Various structures clustered around an enclosed yard Appears in several seemingly unrelated culture regions Found in Inca-settled portions of Andes Mountains Also found in the hills of central Germany, and eastern China Have wide distribution — offer privacy and protection




134 Floor plan Strewn farmstead prevails in countries where Germanic Europeans immigrated and settled Anglo-America, Australia, and New Zealand Buildings lie spaced apart each other in no consistent pattern Especially common in zones of wooden construction where fire is a hazard Poorly suited for defense Often associated with rural regions of more than average tranquility

135 Irish folk houses Other characteristics that help classify farmsteads and dwellings Form or shape of roof Placement of chimney Details such as number and location of doors and windows Estyn Evens Used roof form and chimney placement, among other traits, in classifying Irish houses Determined three major folk-housing culture regions

136 Irish folk houses If floor plan and material composition had been included, more regions would have been identified Other features such as the bed outshot of far north Ireland, mud wall constructions of interior counties, and off-center door found in several districts


138 Folk housing in North America
Few folk houses are being built today Popular culture with its mass-produced, commercially built houses has overwhelmed folk traditions Many folk houses survive in refuge regions



141 Folk housing in North America
Yankee or New England folk houses Wooden frame construction Shingle siding often covers exterior walls Have a variety of floor plans New England large house — huge two-and-a-half stories, built around a central chimney and two rooms deep As Yankee folk moved west, they developed the upright and wing dwelling Houses are often massive because of cold winters


143 Folk housing in North America
Upland Southern folk houses Smaller and built of notched logs—colonial Scandinavian settler technique Saddlebag house--two log rooms separated by a double fireplace


145 Folk housing in North America
Upland Southern folk houses Dogtrot house-two log rooms separated by an open roofed breezeway Shotgun house-African-American, one room wide, but two to four rooms m depth Creole cottage-half-timbered with a central chimney and built-in porch, found in Acadiana, a French-derived folk region in Louisiana

146 Folk housing in North America
Canadian folk houses House type found in French speaking Quebec Main story atop a cellar, attic rooms beneath a curved, bell-shaped roof Balcony-porch with railing extends across the front, which is sheltered by overhanging eaves Summer kitchen sealed off during the long cold winters Houses often built of stone


148 Folk housing in North America
Ontario farmhouse—occurs frequently in the Upper Canadian folk region One-and-a-half stories tall, usually built of brick Has distinctive gabled front dormer window Interpretation of folk architecture is not a simple process Problem of independent invention versus diffusion is raised repeatedly Folk cultures rarely leave behind many written records, making landscape artifacts all the more important



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