2 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY A. Cultures Include All the Features of a Society’s Way of Life.IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS DISCUSS WHAT MAKES UP A PERSON’S CULTURE. (3 MIN.)1. Language, religion, government,economics, food, clothing, familyand architecture, are all part of asociety’s culture.
3 2. Culture Traits - activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice.IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS DISCUSS SOME CULTURE TRAITS THAT YOU HAVE AND MAY SHARE. (4 MIN.)a. Some are much the samethroughout the world.b. Many vary from place to place.c. Often are linked together.d. Change through time.
4 FROM THE LIST OF CULTURE TRAITS THAT YOU HAVE DEVELOPED FROM THE LIST OF CULTURE TRAITS THAT YOU HAVE DEVELOPED. DISCUSS HOW THEY MAY CHANGE, COMPARE THEM TO OTHER COUNTRIES, ETC.B. An Area with Many Shared CultureTraits is Called a Culture Region.1. Some countries, such as Japan andFrance, make up a single culture.2. Some countries, such as Nigeria andDemocratic Republic of the Congo,contain several culture regions.
5 3. A culture region such as Central America also can be comprised ofseveral countries.C. Cultures are Changing Constantly.1. Innovation - people are alwaysthinking of new ways of doing things.2. Cultural Diffusion - when innovationsor other culture traits spread intoanother culture region.a. Gradual spread from its source.b. As people move to a new area.
6 IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS DISCUSS WHAT INNOVATIONS HAVE AFFECTED YOUR GENERATION THE MOST. (3 MIN.) HOW AS CULTURE DIFFUSION AFFECTED YOU. (3 MIN.)3. Acculturation occurs when one culturechanges a great deal through its meetingwith another culture.
7 PEOPLE SHAPE THE LAND A. Hunting and Gathering 1. This method was the main way of lifefor most of human history.2. In early times, hunters and gathersroamed across large areas.3. There are few hunters and gatherersleft today.a. San Bushmen of the KalahariDesert in Africa.b. Aborigines of the Australian deserts.
8 c. Inuit (Eskimo) living in Arctic regionsB. Agriculture1. Perhaps the two most importantdiscoveries in world history were howto raise animals and how to plantcrops.2. Agriculture appeared when hunter-gatherers studied a plant or animal soclosely that they found out how togrow or tame it.
9 a. This process is called domestication. b. Agriculture first appeared about10,000 years ago in several areas ofsouthwestern Asia.c. Agriculture permitted people togrow more food year after year.d. Farming also encouraged villagelife.3. Today, many people still make theirliving by agriculture.
10 a. Subsistence Agriculture - people grow food on small farms mostlyfor their own families.b. Commercial Agriculture - growingcrops for sale.WHAT DOES THE U.S. PRACTICE. IS THIS THE CASE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.C. City Life1. First cities appeared more than 5,000year ago.
11 2. Urbanization - growth in the proportion of people living in towns and cities.3. Culture Hearths - urbanized centers ofimportant new ideas and development.4. Today, cities are centers ofmanufacturing, communications,education, government services, andthe arts.IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS DISCUSS WHAT/WHERE URBANIZATION IS TAKING PART IN THE U.S.? IS THIS POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE. (5 MIN.)
12 D. Industrialization1. Allowed standardized goods to bemade in abundance and at lower cost.2. Grew rapidly in Western Europeduring the eighteenth century.a. Became known as the IndustrialRevolution.b. Factories clustered near riverswhere falling water provided power.c. Most factories were located incities.
13 3. Industrialization continues to spread around the world.IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS DISCUSS THE POSITIVES AND NEGATIVES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. WHAT HAS IT BROUGHT TO THE WORLD. (4 MIN.)
14 CULTURE AND WORLD EVENTS A. Nationalism - feelings of pride and loyaltyto one’s country.1. Can sometimes lead to discrimination,unfairness, or even war.B. Religion1. A KEY culture trait in many societies.2. Conflicts arise when people do nottolerate other religions.
15 C. Traditional Versus Modern Values 1. Some cultures adapt to change easily,whereas other cultures do not.2. Fundamentalism is a movement thatstresses the strict following of basictraditional principlesD. Politics1. In a totalitarian governments, a fewpeople decide what is best foreveryone.
16 2. In democratic governments, everyone has a voice in government.3. The United Nations is a worldwideorganization that tries to settle problemsamong and within countries.E. Economics1. Some countries have abundant rawmaterials and successful industries;others have only a few.a. This situation may encourage poornations to invade a rich neighbor.
17 b. In the past, wealthy nations colonized other lands to acquire resources.2. Sometimes, economic conflicts arenonviolent.a. Tariffs - taxes placed on imports andexports.b. Quotas - limits on the amount of aparticular good that can be importedF. Issues in Human Geography1. The information age is closely linkingpeople throughout the world. (Internet)
18 2. Fewer raw materials are needed in the information age.3. As a result of changes brought about bythe information age, jobs in traditionalindustries are disappearing.IN YOUR SMALL GROUPS; USING THE 5 IDEAS WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT WRITE DOWN HOW YOU FEEL THE WORLD IS GOING TO CHANGE IN EACH OF THE THEMES. IS THIS FOR THE BETTER OR WORSE?? (10 MIN.)
19 POSSIBLE ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Cut cultural newspaper articles.Compare contrast similarities anddifferences.2. Cut newspaper articles that have to dowith cultural backgrounds within thestate of Minnesota3. Newspaper articles that appeal to peoplefrom different cultures.4. Newspaper advertisements for differentkinds of cultural foods. How does thisrelate to where the food comes from andthe resources in that country.5. Learning About Your Local Geography6. Using the Five Themes of Geography(pg. 77) (collage)7. Thinking Critically (pg. 77)8. Section Review (pg. 69, 73, 76)9. Reviewing the Main Ideas, Building aVoc, Recalling and Reviewing