Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches."— Presentation transcript:
AP Psychology Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches
Prescientific Psychology The study of psychology began with early philosophers who began to ask a series of reflective questions to learn more about the world, humans, and their environment. Buddha (India) –collecting data from our senses and the ability of the mind to process that data and form a perception Confucius (China) – the influence of ideas and a knowledgeable mind Hebrew scholars – linked thought processes and emotions to bodily actions Socrates & Plato (Greece) – mind and body are separable; the mind exists after the body dies; we are born with pre-existing knowledge Aristotle (Greece) – believed in collecting data via observation; knowledge is NOT pre-existing, but grows as experiences occur
Pair – Partner Reflection In what ways did these philosophers agree or disagree?
Later Scientists… 1. Rene’ Descartes (French) 1595-1650 Mind and body are separate Mind exists even after death Animal spirits reside in bodily fluids, which influences the body to move 2. Francis Bacon (British) 1561-1626 Experimentation is KEY! Knowledge is built from personal experience 3. John Locke (British) 1621-1704 Mind is a blank slate (Tabula rasa) at birth Knowledge is gained as the baby has experiences Science should be based on observation and experimentation (empiricism)
Modern Psychology is Born… Wilhelm Wundt (German) 1879 – established the 1 st psychology lab and conducted the 1 st experiment at the University of Leipzig.
Schools of Psychology Structuralism – learn structure of the brain via introspection Functionalism-explain the function of the brain via mental and behavioral processes Behaviorism – observation of behavior Experimental Psychology – exploration of behavior and cognition via research Cognitive Psychology – the influence of mental processes on behavior Schools of Psychology Gestalt Psychology – Study the sum of the parts (whole) Evolutionary Psychology – Nature vs. Nurture; which has the most influence on behavior? Humanistic Psychology – all humans desire success; guide humans to reach their potential Psychoanalysis – study of how deeper levels of consciousness affect behavior
Pair-Partner Reflection How do you think psychology might change as more people from non-Western countries contribute their ideas to the field? Which event defined the founding of modern scientific psychology?
Evolutionary Psychology: The contemporary study of psychology Psychology’s biggest question is: Which as the most influence on a person’s behavior: NATURE (genetics) or NURTURE (environment)? Charles Darwin proposes that the evolutionary process of natural selection heavily influence the likelihood of an organism to survive and thrive in an environment. A Few Questions to Consider: Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially developed? How are intelligence levels and personality influenced by genetics and environment? Are sexual behaviors motivated by instinct (genetics) or by culture (environment)?
Levels of Analysis (The Biopsychosocial Approach) 1. Biological influences 2. Psychological influences 3. Social-cultural influences
Pair Partner Discussion: 1. In what ways might it benefit the study of psychology by using the 3 levels of analysis? 2. Basic Research vs. Applied Research: What might be some similarities and differences between these two types of research? 3. Psychology has a variety of complementary yet incomplete perspectives that help us understand behavior. How might each of the following perspectives explain aggression? Biological Cognitive Evolutionary Social-cultural