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AP Psychology Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches.

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1 AP Psychology Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches

2 Prescientific Psychology  The study of psychology began with early philosophers who began to ask a series of reflective questions to learn more about the world, humans, and their environment.  Buddha (India) –collecting data from our senses and the ability of the mind to process that data and form a perception  Confucius (China) – the influence of ideas and a knowledgeable mind  Hebrew scholars – linked thought processes and emotions to bodily actions  Socrates & Plato (Greece) – mind and body are separable; the mind exists after the body dies; we are born with pre-existing knowledge  Aristotle (Greece) – believed in collecting data via observation; knowledge is NOT pre-existing, but grows as experiences occur

3 Pair – Partner Reflection In what ways did these philosophers agree or disagree?

4 Later Scientists… 1. Rene’ Descartes (French) 1595-1650 Mind and body are separate Mind exists even after death Animal spirits reside in bodily fluids, which influences the body to move 2. Francis Bacon (British) 1561-1626 Experimentation is KEY! Knowledge is built from personal experience 3. John Locke (British) 1621-1704 Mind is a blank slate (Tabula rasa) at birth Knowledge is gained as the baby has experiences Science should be based on observation and experimentation (empiricism)

5 Modern Psychology is Born… Wilhelm Wundt (German) 1879 – established the 1 st psychology lab and conducted the 1 st experiment at the University of Leipzig.

6 Schools of Psychology Structuralism – learn structure of the brain via introspection Functionalism-explain the function of the brain via mental and behavioral processes Behaviorism – observation of behavior Experimental Psychology – exploration of behavior and cognition via research Cognitive Psychology – the influence of mental processes on behavior Schools of Psychology Gestalt Psychology – Study the sum of the parts (whole) Evolutionary Psychology – Nature vs. Nurture; which has the most influence on behavior? Humanistic Psychology – all humans desire success; guide humans to reach their potential Psychoanalysis – study of how deeper levels of consciousness affect behavior

7 Pair-Partner Reflection How do you think psychology might change as more people from non-Western countries contribute their ideas to the field? Which event defined the founding of modern scientific psychology?

8 Evolutionary Psychology: The contemporary study of psychology  Psychology’s biggest question is:  Which as the most influence on a person’s behavior: NATURE (genetics) or NURTURE (environment)?  Charles Darwin proposes that the evolutionary process of natural selection heavily influence the likelihood of an organism to survive and thrive in an environment.  A Few Questions to Consider:  Are gender differences biologically predisposed or socially developed?  How are intelligence levels and personality influenced by genetics and environment?  Are sexual behaviors motivated by instinct (genetics) or by culture (environment)?

9 Levels of Analysis (The Biopsychosocial Approach) 1. Biological influences 2. Psychological influences 3. Social-cultural influences

10 Psychology Careers  Developmental psychologists  Educational psychologists  Personality psychologists  Social psychologists  Industrial- organizational psychologists  Human factors psychologists  Counseling psychologists  Clinical psychologists  Psychiatrists  Sports psychologists  Forensic psychologists

11 Pair Partner Discussion: 1. In what ways might it benefit the study of psychology by using the 3 levels of analysis? 2. Basic Research vs. Applied Research: What might be some similarities and differences between these two types of research? 3. Psychology has a variety of complementary yet incomplete perspectives that help us understand behavior. How might each of the following perspectives explain aggression?  Biological  Cognitive  Evolutionary  Social-cultural

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