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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY’S HISTORY AND APPROACHES Unit 1 Study Presentation."— Presentation transcript:


2 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?  The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Think Feel Act

3 GREAT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS  Socrates & Plato The mind is separate from the body Knowledge is with us at birth (innate).  Aristotle disagreed; arguing the point that knowledge comes from our experiences in life and stored in memory. GOOD JOB ARISTOTLE!!! :D

4  French  Animal Spirits First introduction to the thought of a nervous system  Tabula Rasa  With the help of Francis Bacon... Empiricism was born!! Science should rely on observation and experimentation. MORE DANG PHILOSOPHERS Descartes Locke

5  Founded the first psychological laboratory  Titchener (Student) Introduced Structuralism ( using introspection to self- reflect)  Functionalism Emphasized how behavior and mental processes enable us to adapt and survive …AND THEY KEEP COMING… Wundt William James

6  The first female president of the APA American Psychological Association  The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology WOMAN POWER Washburn Calkins

7 HISTORY IN THE MAKING  The early roots of Psychology come from fields including those in philosophy and biology.  In its earliest years, Psychology was defined as the science of mental life, but was then redefined as the science of observable behaviors.

8 HISTORY CONTINUED  1960s – Cognitive Revolution began as we recaptured interest in the actual processes of the mind. Cognitive Neuroscience began! The study of brain activity linked directly with intelligence, perception, memory, and language.

9  Studied learning and how we acquire info.  Observational Learning….. Pavlov, Dog… Remember???  Child Psychology and Development Ivan PavlovJean Piaget Sigmund Freud  Personality Theorist Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Id, Ego, Superego Psycho-Sexual Stages

10  Sensorimotor Birth-2 years Senses  Preoperational 2-7 years Form concepts using symbols to gain language development  Concrete Operational 7-11 years Learn reasoning skills to conclude answers  Formal Operational 11-15 years Can think abstractedly as well as accurately draw conclusions COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

11  BEHAVIORISM A response to Freudian psychology. Psychology should only focus on observable behaviors, not mental processes We can’t observe feelings or emotions, but we can observe behavior.  Humanistic Psychology!! Emphasized the growth of healthy people More concerned with feelings MORE IMPORTANT PEOPLE (THE LIST NEVER ENDS!!!) Rogers & Maslow

12 PSYCHOLOGY’S BIG QUESTION  NATURE VS. NURTURE?? Charles Darwin – Natural Selection There is no second place! Are we more shaped by our genetics or by our environment?

13 BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH Biological: Natural Selection Genetics Psychological: Emotional Responses Learned fears, etc. Social-Cultural: Peer Influences Cultural/Family Expectations

14 PSYCHOLOGY APPROACHES ApproachMain StudyExample EvolutionaryNatural selection and survival of genes How fear helped our ancestors survive PsychodynamicHow behavior comes from the unconscious How an outburst may be expressed, unconscious anger BiologicalHow the body controls emotions and memories; influences for genetic variation How heredity contributes to different emotions HumanisticHow we meet needs for love and acceptance Why we let peer pressure change our values BehavioralHow we learn by observationHow little kids learn to fear what their parents do Social-CulturalHow we behave/think across cultures Different gestures inappropriate in different cultures CognitiveHow we encode, process, store, and retrieve info How different emotions effect or thinking patterns

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