Past time I walked for two hoursI have walked for two hours PastPresent perfect
past tense and present perfect tense The Past: Regular forms (walked, trained) Irregular forms (drank, wrote) Jack wrote a letter The Present Perfect: Have/has + Past participle Have walked Has trained Have drunk Has written Jack has written many letters
Dutch/English Ik heb je vorige week op het station gezien Ik zag je vorige week op het station. I saw you at the station last week.
The Past Is used for past events: Short, quickly finished actions, longer situations and repeated events which are all over and done with; there is no connection with the present.
Short, quickly finished actions Peter bought a car last week.
Longer situations I spent my childhood in Scotland.
Repeated events Every summer, Janet fell in love with an Italian gondolier.
You HAVE TO use the past tense for actions completed at a definite time in the past.
Time is given.I met him yesterday. Time is asked about.When did you meet him? Time is implied.How did you get this job? (You now have the job.) The event took place in a period of time that has now ended. She lived in Rome when she was a teenager. (She is now an adult.) Past habits.They never drank wine. (But they do now.)
Present perfect A mixture of the present and past A strong link with the present We want to say that something in the past is connected with the present in some way. We are thinking of the past and the present at the same time. But remember: the present perfect is used for PAST TIME.
I have had a cold for two weeks the past (two weeks ago) now
Continuative Present Perfect To say that something happened several times up to the present, or to say that something started in the past and still continues. I’ve read four books since the beginning of this month I’ve been married for 8 years.
Continuative Present Perfect To ask if something has ever happened (or hasn’t happened) between a moment in the past, and the moment of speaking. Have you ever seen a ghost? Have you been to Mexico in the past year?
I have wrecked my car. the past (the accident)I have to walk
Resultative present perfect To talk about the consequences / effects in the present of past actions I’ve broken a leg. (That’s why it’s in a cast.)
Resultative present perfect We’ll have to hurry – I’ve seen wolves in this forest. (Evidence from the past suggests one might turn up soon!)
Compare: We’ll have to hurry – I’ve seen wolves in this forest. Did you see wolves in this forest when you were here last year?
Continuous forms Past continuous What were you doing at eight o’clock last evening? What did you see as you were walking down the road last night?
Continuous forms Present perfect continuous I’ve been working all day long. It’s been raining all week.
Why is the present perfect used here? Exercise 1 1.I have seen that movie twenty times. 2.There have been many earthquakes in California. 3.People have not traveled to Mars yet. 4.Have you read the book I gave you? 5.Nobody has ever climbed that mountain. 6.Has there ever been a war in the United States? 7.Are you hungry? No, I’ve eaten.
Exercise 2 1.You have grown since the last time I saw you. 2.Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. 3.My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. 4.Ouch! I have cut my finger! 5.James has not finished his homework yet. 6.Bill has still not arrived. 7.The rain hasn't stopped.
Exercise 3 1.I have had five tests so far this semester. 2.We have had many major problems while working on this project. 3.Somebody has nicked my purse! 4.She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick. 5.I’ve tried to talk to her, but she won’t listen. 6.She has been in England for six months. 7.Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Sample exercise Fill in: past or present perfect 1Joji ________ in Tokyo for five years, but he left in 1993. lived / has lived 2The Titanic ________ in 1912. sank / has sunk 3Somebody ________ my bicycle! Now I'll have to walk home. stole / has stolen 4Gerry ________ off his bike three times this month. fell / has fallen 5Chika ________ from university last July. graduated / has graduated
Homework In pairs, write a simple 'fill in the correct form' exercise in which the past and the present perfect are mixed, like in the example on slide 24. You need to be able to fill in the gaps yourselves and provide a proper explanation. Write at least 10 sentences and make them available somewhere (mail?) so you can show them on the beamer next week. Study the units on the present perfect in English Grammar in Use and do the exercises. If you need more practice – go to your grammar reader and study the information there.