3 Observing and Hypothesizing The knowledge obtained when scientists answer one question often generates other questions or proves useful in solving other problems.
4 The methods biologists use The common steps that biologists and other scientists use to gather information and answer questions are collectively known as scientific methods.Scientific methods usually begin with scientists identifying a problem to solve by observing the world around them.
5 #1 Ask a question Begin with a solid question or problem Choose something that can be measured.
6 Take notes and study the existing data RESEARCH THE PROBLEMConsult a wide variety of resources on the topicTake notes and study the existing data
7 The methods biologists use A hypothesis is an explanation for a question or a problem that can be formally tested.Hypothesizing is one of the methods most frequently used by scientists.A hypothesis is not a random guess.
8 #2 FORM A HYPOTHESISMake an educated guess about a solution or answer.Turn the hypothesis into a statement that you think solves the problem
9 WRITE DOWN METHODS AND PROCEDURES List the methods and procedures that test your hypothesis.Methods and procedures are a list of step by step instructions that will be used in your experiment.These may also be divided into limitations and delimitations.Limitations = controlsDelimitations = variables and factors that cannot be included as controls
10 #3 TEST THE EXPERIMENTObserve the experiment and the changes that occur.Record the data accurately and honestly.
11 ExperimentingTo a scientist, an experiment is an investigation that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting information under controlled conditions.
12 What is a controlled experiment? Some experiments involve two groups: the control group and the experimental group.The control is the group in which all conditions are kept the same.The experimental group is the test group, in which all conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested.
13 Designing an experiment In a controlled experiment, only one condition is changed at a time.The condition in an experiment that is changed is the independent variable, because it is the only variable that affects the outcome of the experiment.
14 Designing an experiment While changing the independent variable, the scientist observes or measures a second condition that results from the change.This condition is the dependent variable, because any changes in it depend on changes made to the independent variable.
15 #4 ANALYZE THE DATA Analyze the recorded findings. Organize the recorded data into a chart, graph, or table
16 #5 DRAW A CONCLUSION Summarize your findings. Write a statement that proves or disapproves your original hypothesis.
17 #6 COMMUNICATE RESULTS Share results with peers Write a lab paper that summarizes results and tells how you did the experiment.Make changes to your question or hypothesis so that you can repeat the experiment.
18 #7 REPEAT THE EXPERIMENT Repeat the experiment to ensure consistency.You cannot form a conclusion based on data that isinconsistentunproven