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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1 - 1 Chapter 1 Canadian Criminology Its nature and structure “Obviously crime pays, or there'd be no crime.” G. Gordon Liddy
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 2 Learning Objectives Understand the complexity of both criminology and crime, particularly within a Canadian context. Differentiate between crime and deviance and identify other misconceptions about criminology. Understand the role of criminologists, their various methods of inquiry, and the elements that make up the discipline of criminology. Recognize the many ways we gain knowledge regarding crime. Appreciate the impact of the social sciences on the development of criminology and recognize the necessity for an integrated and interdisciplinary approach.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 3 “when there is crime in society there is no justice” Plato Scientific study of crime, criminals, victims, criminal behaviour AND its systems What is a …… Criminal Crime vs. Offence vs. Deviance Criminologist Victim
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 4 What constitutes a crime? Summary, indictable, and hybrid Conventional and Non-conventional Crime vs. offence
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 5 What constitutes a crime? Consensus Behaviours where high agreement as to the social harm AND strong support to sanction & control such behaviour Non-consensus Disagreement as to social harm AND varying support, low support concerning sanction & control
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 6 The notion of deviance Encompasses wide spectrum of conduct that, to varying degrees, may be considered offensive (by whom?) Actions that depart from social norms – actions may or may not be against the law Perceptions of crime not constant, attitudes vary, social processes define it
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 7 Who or what is a victim? Criminal act committed against / on / to a person / group / agency…. A label, socially prescribed – can’t exist without a law / crime Possible to be victimised by offender, CJS, the state, the media…
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 8 Setting the stage… Has crime increased? Who commits the most crime? Does capital punishment work? Most serious crimes today? Can we control crime?
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 9 A call for Canadian Criminology Crime is universal… so! Differences that count Minorities, law enforcement, sentencing, culture, politics, etc. Significant theoretical & practical contributions
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 10 The Evolving Face of Crime and Criminology Initial interest punishment and treatment Secondary evolution of the study of penology Shift from legal reforms to scientifically- oriented approach Reformers (C. Becarria & J. Bentham) “The subject matter of criminology has been ‘blurred’ by shifts of both meaning and focus” N. Walker ‘87
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 11 What do Criminologist do? Interdisciplinary, multi-faceted Involves sub areas 1. criminal statistics 2. sociology of law 3. theory construction etiology 4. typology of criminal behaviour 5. 3 Ps – policing, prosecution and protection 6. Victimology
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 12 The Diversity of Criminology Sociology: social structure, social process, to social organization Psychology: science of individual behaviour, internal dynamics Biology: chemical, genetic, and/or neurological influences
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 13 The Diversity of Criminology Economics: “money the root of all evil”? Geography/Environm ent: crime influenced by physical & environmental factors Political science: the importance of social policy
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 14 Integrated and Interdisciplinary approach “paradigm shift” from uni-discipline to multi- or inter-disciplinary perspectives Integration of social sciences Bridges specific and general aspects of crime
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 15 “Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do” - Voltaire Criminology = bridging theory & policy Social and political challenges BUT… serious ethical issues Punish or treat A crime or deviant act Who decides? What do you think? Box 1.10
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.1 - 16 Summary Crime is a global issue Canada has its own unique concerns Criminology burgeoning in Canada Discipline rapidly evolving in a systematic and objective fashion Criminology an applied science that resembles a living organism
Social Process Theories: Socialized to Crime
Future Directions in Criminology “you can never plan the future by the past” – Edmund Burke ( )
Introduction to Crime and Deviance *Though crime is an issue that dominates the public imagination, is the subject of regularly lurid tabloid headlines,
Chapter 1 – Crime and Criminology. Crime and Criminology Crime occurs in all segments of society Wide range of offenses committed, not just street crime.
Lesson 1 – Crime, Criminology and the Sociological Imagination
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
The Sociological Point of View Examining Social Life
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 7 Sociology- Based Perspectives of Crime The sociological imagination enables us to grasp.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 8 Violent Crimes “To all of us crime seems like violence” K. Menninger, ’68:157.
Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to:
Chapter 1 Crime, Criminology, and the Criminal Law.
© 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Chapter 9 Deviance.
Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology.
Crime and Social Deviance Chapter 16. Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 16-2 Social Deviance Norms make social life possible Social order Social.
Criminology: Connecting Theory, Research, and Practice
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
UI 309 Carol Veneziano. Definition of crime n Crime is an act n or the omission of an act n In violation of the penal codes n without defense or justification.
Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention Riedel and Welsh, Ch. 1 “Violence and Criminal Violence”
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc The Meaning of Crime: Social Process Perspective Chapter 9.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 3 Gathering and Interpreting Crime Data “It’s elementary my dear Watson.” Sherlock Holmes.
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