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Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to:

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Presentation on theme: "Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to:
a. the study of criminal behavior b. society’s reaction to law violations and violators

2 Criminology vs. Criminal Justice
The Study of Agencies Related to the Control of Crime Criminology The study of crime trends, nature of crime,theories of crime Who Cares? Mostly pointy headed academics.

3 Criminology vs. Deviance
Criminology Focuses on Crimes Crime = violation of criminal law Deviance Focuses on Violations of Societal Norms These may or may not also be law violations

4 Criminology as a Discipline
Until recently, (1970s) there was no such thing as a degree in “criminology” or “criminal justice.” 1900s-1970s: Degree in sociology or urban studies (emphasis on crime). Implication? Sociology dominates.

5 A Crude History of Criminology
Middle Ages Superstition, religion, and fear Classical School (1750s-1900) Utilitarian philosophy of (Becarria) Free Will, Hedonistic Calculus Positive School (1900-present) Bio/psych determinism ( s) Lombroso’s “Ativism” Intelligence, Personality

6 Crude History—Part II Sociological theory (1920s-Present)
Durkheim, Merton Political philosophy (1960s-early 1970s) (Marx) Neo-classical (Late 1970s-1990s) Currently? Developmental Theory (interdisciplinary)

7 Categories of Contemporary Crime Theory
Psycho- logical Theory Choice Theory Biosocial Theory Lifecourse Theory Criminal Behavior Conflict Theory Social Process Theory Social Structural Theory

8 Sub-Areas in the field of Criminology/Criminal Justice
Criminal Statistics (gather/interpret the facts) Sociology of Law (how and why law changes) Theory Construction (why people commit crimes) Penology (prison, rehabilitation, policing) Victimology (who gets victimized, how?)

9 Differing views on the causes and controls of criminal behavior
Consensus View Law defines crime; Agreement exists on outlawed behavior Laws apply to all citizens equally Conflict view Law is a tool of the ruling class (to control the underclass) Crime is a politically defined concept Interactionist Moral entrepreneurs define crime Crimes are illegal because society defines them that way Criminal labels are life-transforming events

10 Doing Criminology: Types of Research
Survey Research (cross-sectional research) Longitudinal Research (cohort groups) Aggregate Data Research Experimental Research Observational Research

11 Ethics in research! Political Viewpoints and Criminal Justice
Funding Sources Political and Social Consequences of Findings/Results

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