Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to:
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1 Sutherland & Cressy (1960) Criminology is the scientific approach to: a. the study of criminal behaviorb. society’s reaction to law violations and violators
2 Criminology vs. Criminal Justice The Study of Agencies Related to the Control of CrimeCriminologyThe study of crime trends, nature of crime,theories of crimeWho Cares? Mostly pointy headed academics.
3 Criminology vs. Deviance Criminology Focuses on CrimesCrime = violation of criminal lawDeviance Focuses on Violations of Societal NormsThese may or may not also be law violations
4 Criminology as a Discipline Until recently, (1970s) there was no such thing as a degree in “criminology” or “criminal justice.”1900s-1970s: Degree in sociology or urban studies (emphasis on crime).Implication? Sociology dominates.
5 A Crude History of Criminology Middle AgesSuperstition, religion, and fearClassical School (1750s-1900)Utilitarian philosophy of (Becarria)Free Will, Hedonistic CalculusPositive School (1900-present)Bio/psych determinism ( s)Lombroso’s “Ativism”Intelligence, Personality
6 Crude History—Part II Sociological theory (1920s-Present) Durkheim, MertonPolitical philosophy (1960s-early 1970s)(Marx)Neo-classical (Late 1970s-1990s)Currently?Developmental Theory (interdisciplinary)
7 Categories of Contemporary Crime Theory Psycho-logicalTheoryChoiceTheoryBiosocialTheoryLifecourseTheoryCriminal BehaviorConflictTheorySocialProcessTheorySocialStructuralTheory
8 Sub-Areas in the field of Criminology/Criminal Justice Criminal Statistics (gather/interpret the facts)Sociology of Law (how and why law changes)Theory Construction (why people commit crimes)Penology (prison, rehabilitation, policing)Victimology (who gets victimized, how?)
9 Differing views on the causes and controls of criminal behavior Consensus ViewLaw defines crime; Agreement exists on outlawed behaviorLaws apply to all citizens equallyConflict viewLaw is a tool of the ruling class (to control the underclass)Crime is a politically defined conceptInteractionistMoral entrepreneurs define crimeCrimes are illegal because society defines them that wayCriminal labels are life-transforming events
10 Doing Criminology: Types of Research Survey Research(cross-sectional research)LongitudinalResearch(cohort groups)Aggregate DataResearchExperimentalResearchObservationalResearch
11 Ethics in research! Political Viewpoints and Criminal Justice Funding SourcesPolitical and Social Consequences of Findings/Results