2 During this workshop we will Place the development of indicators in the context of M&E and LFAClarify what we understand by indicators and their importance to improving organisational performanceExamine the characteristics of a good indicator and the process of developing themExplore the particular challenges of developing indicators for rights-based work with childrenIdentify ways in which the network can support members in developing indicators for their work with children
3 Monitoring and evaluation “Monitoring is the systematic and continuous assessment of the progress of a piece of work over time.”“ An evaluation is the assessment at one point in time of the impact of a piece of work and the extent to which the stated objectives have been achieved.”
4 Why monitor and evaluate? To improve performanceTo improve day-to-day decision-makingTo enhance impactTo provide early warning of problemsTo empower stakeholdersTo build understanding and capacityTo stimulate learningTo demonstrate & strengthen accountability
5 The programme management cycle Situation analysisPlanningImplementationMonitoringReview and evaluation
6 LFA and indicatorsLFA is a commonly used approach for project and programme planning, implementation and evaluationLFA structures thinking about links between objective setting, monitoring and evaluationA Logframe matrix is used to map out the ‘objective hierarchy’ Goal, Purpose, Objectives, Outputs and ActivitiesRequires the identification of indicators and means of verification for each ‘level’
7 Key stages in the Logical Framework Approach Establish the scope of the workAgree on the planning frameworkUndertake a situation analysisProblem analysisStakeholder analysisObjectives analysisDevelop the implementation strategyComplete the Logframe matrixEstablish indicators and MoVIdentify & analyse assumptions & risksDevelop the M&E framework
8 Logframe terms and example GoalThe broader development impact to which the project contributesImproved community health on a sustainable basisPurposeThe development outcome expected at the end of the projectA clean, reliable and sustainable supply of water adequate for community needsComponentObjectivesThe expected outcomes for each component of the projectReticulated water supply established by (date)Competent village water supply technicians in place by (date)OutputsThe direct measurable results of the project (largely under management’s control)1.1 plan for water supply1.2 suitable header tank1.3 operational pumpActivitiesThe tasks carried out to implement the project & deliver the outputsConduct site survey; identify local labour sources; build header tank; construct pump.
9 The Logframe matrix Project Description Indicators Means of VerificationAssumptionsGoalPurposeObjectivesOutputsActivities
10 What is an indicator?An indicator is the quantitative or qualitative evidence that will be used to assess progress towards an objective. Indicators provide the basis for monitoring progress and evaluating the achievement of outcomes. An objective may have more than one indicator.
11 Different types of indicators Process indicatorsImpact indicatorsQuantitative indicatorsQualitative indicatorsProxy indicatorsIndicesPROCESS - show whether the activities that were planned are actually being carried out, and carried out effectively.IMPACT - to assess what progress is being made towards reaching the objectives, and what impact the work has had on the different groups of people affected by the work.QUANTITATIVE indicators involve the definition of numerical measures eg number of meetings attended.QUALITATIVE indicators refer to defining characteristics that cannot be quantified. For example, changes in behaviour or people’s perceptions.PROXY indicators measure things that represent (or approximate) changes that cannot be measured directly. Eg the percentage of households with bicycles may approximate a level of economic well-being in communities where bicycles are desirable but expensive.INDICES combine a number of different indicators to enable comparisons. For example UNDP’s human development index.
12 SMART Properties of indicators SpecificMeasurable (and unambiguous)Attainable (and sensitive)RelevantTime-boundSPECIFIC -Must relate to those things that the project intends to change, avoiding measures that are largely subject to external influencesMEASURABLE -Indicators must be precisely defined so that their measurement and interpretation are unambiguous.Quantifiable indicators are more precise but because development and rights-related work may be difficult to quantify, qualitative indicators should also be used.ATTAINABLE -The information required by an indicator must be achievable at a reasonable cost using an appropriate collection method and sensitive to the changes the project wishes to make.RELEVANT -Indicators should be relevant to the work of the project.TIME-BOUND -Indicators should describe by when a certain change is expected.It is not always easy to meet all these criteria!
13 The Logframe matrix Project Description Example Indicators Means of VerificationGoalImproved community health on a sustainable basisReduced water-borne disease rates.Health recordsInterviews with community membersPurposeA clean, reliable and sustainable supply of water adequate for community needsWater cleanliness at acceptable standardsWater availability with no supply shortages of more than (specified time).Supply breakdowns fixed within agreed standards.Water cleanliness testsSite visits to examine supplyObjectivesWater supply established by (date)Competent village water supply technicians in place by (date)Water supply in place and being used by (date)Village technicians able and dealing with supply maintenance & problems.Site visitsRecords of supply use.Testing of technicians’ ability to deal with problems.Technicians maintenance logsOutputs1.1 plan for water supply1.2 suitable header tank1.3 operational pumpWorkable plan produced and used for constructionTank and pump constructed to agreed standardsExamination of planSite visits to examine ‘hardware’ActivitiesConduct site survey; identify local labour sources; build header tank; construct pump.Work plan targets metWork planConstruction log
14 Developing indicators that address performance issues Establish goal, purpose and objectives in the LogframeIdentify performance questions for all levels in the objective hierarchyDevelop the indicators needed to answer the performance questionsDevelop the means of verification
15 Criteria for selecting indicators Does the indicator measure what you want to measure?Does the indicator yield data that it is essential to know (rather than just nice to know)?Does the indicator yield data that is useful for programme planning and management?Is the indicator worth the time and effort to measure?
16 Dimensions of change in child rights programming Source: Theis, Joachim (2003) Rights Based Monitoring and Evaluation: A Discussion Paper, Save the Children
17 Evaluation and rights based programming Must gather the views & opinions of children & young people whilst recognising the ‘child’s best interests’Should be designed with and involve children and young people whenever possibleMust address the ‘Three Pillars’, as appropriate
18 Evaluating children and young people’s participation Impact of children & young people’s participationImpact on the stated objectivesImpact on childrenImpact on adults, communities and institutionsQuality of children & young people’s participationEffectiveness of children & young people’s participation
19 Demonstrating a commitment to children’s participation Transformed power relations between children and adultsRaised awareness and developed skills in children’s participation among children and adultsChildren’s civil rights (information, expression and association) actively promoted throughout the organisationObstacles overcome and space increased for decision making by children at all levels of society and in all institutionsChildren and adults supported to claim children’s rights
20 Capacity building - some ideas Arrange training courses and workshopsOrganise mentoring supportSupport development of organisational strategies, policies & standardsSupport development of organisational systems and proceduresArrange exchange visits & info exchangeProduce and distribute case-studies, annotated reading lists, guidelines, tools, manuals & practice standardsFacilitate collaborative working on common issuesDevelop a list of resource persons
21 Useful documents used in developing this presentation Theis, Joachim (2003) Rights Based Monitoring and Evaluation: A Discussion Paper Save the Children. Available online atKirby, Perpetua and Sara Bryson (2002) Measuring the Magic?: Evaluating and researching young people’s participation in public decision making, London: Carnegie Young People Initiative. Available online atChildren and Participation: Research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people. Available online at