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Developing Indicators

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Indicators"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Indicators
Workshop for Børne - og ungdomsnetværket Copenhagen Wednesday 13 August, 2003

2 During this workshop we will
Place the development of indicators in the context of M&E and LFA Clarify what we understand by indicators and their importance to improving organisational performance Examine the characteristics of a good indicator and the process of developing them Explore the particular challenges of developing indicators for rights-based work with children Identify ways in which the network can support members in developing indicators for their work with children

3 Monitoring and evaluation
“Monitoring is the systematic and continuous assessment of the progress of a piece of work over time.” “ An evaluation is the assessment at one point in time of the impact of a piece of work and the extent to which the stated objectives have been achieved.”

4 Why monitor and evaluate?
To improve performance To improve day-to-day decision-making To enhance impact To provide early warning of problems To empower stakeholders To build understanding and capacity To stimulate learning To demonstrate & strengthen accountability

5 The programme management cycle
Situation analysis Planning Implementation Monitoring Review and evaluation

6 LFA and indicators LFA is a commonly used approach for project and programme planning, implementation and evaluation LFA structures thinking about links between objective setting, monitoring and evaluation A Logframe matrix is used to map out the ‘objective hierarchy’ Goal, Purpose, Objectives, Outputs and Activities Requires the identification of indicators and means of verification for each ‘level’

7 Key stages in the Logical Framework Approach
Establish the scope of the work Agree on the planning framework Undertake a situation analysis Problem analysis Stakeholder analysis Objectives analysis Develop the implementation strategy Complete the Logframe matrix Establish indicators and MoV Identify & analyse assumptions & risks Develop the M&E framework

8 Logframe terms and example
Goal The broader development impact to which the project contributes Improved community health on a sustainable basis Purpose The development outcome expected at the end of the project A clean, reliable and sustainable supply of water adequate for community needs ComponentObjectives The expected outcomes for each component of the project Reticulated water supply established by (date) Competent village water supply technicians in place by (date) Outputs The direct measurable results of the project (largely under management’s control) 1.1 plan for water supply 1.2 suitable header tank 1.3 operational pump Activities The tasks carried out to implement the project & deliver the outputs Conduct site survey; identify local labour sources; build header tank; construct pump.

9 The Logframe matrix Project Description Indicators
Means of Verification Assumptions Goal Purpose Objectives Outputs Activities

10 What is an indicator? An indicator is the quantitative or qualitative evidence that will be used to assess progress towards an objective. Indicators provide the basis for monitoring progress and evaluating the achievement of outcomes. An objective may have more than one indicator.

11 Different types of indicators
Process indicators Impact indicators Quantitative indicators Qualitative indicators Proxy indicators Indices PROCESS - show whether the activities that were planned are actually being carried out, and carried out effectively. IMPACT - to assess what progress is being made towards reaching the objectives, and what impact the work has had on the different groups of people affected by the work. QUANTITATIVE indicators involve the definition of numerical measures eg number of meetings attended. QUALITATIVE indicators refer to defining characteristics that cannot be quantified. For example, changes in behaviour or people’s perceptions. PROXY indicators measure things that represent (or approximate) changes that cannot be measured directly. Eg the percentage of households with bicycles may approximate a level of economic well-being in communities where bicycles are desirable but expensive. INDICES combine a number of different indicators to enable comparisons. For example UNDP’s human development index.

12 SMART Properties of indicators
Specific Measurable (and unambiguous) Attainable (and sensitive) Relevant Time-bound SPECIFIC - Must relate to those things that the project intends to change, avoiding measures that are largely subject to external influences MEASURABLE - Indicators must be precisely defined so that their measurement and interpretation are unambiguous. Quantifiable indicators are more precise but because development and rights-related work may be difficult to quantify, qualitative indicators should also be used. ATTAINABLE - The information required by an indicator must be achievable at a reasonable cost using an appropriate collection method and sensitive to the changes the project wishes to make. RELEVANT - Indicators should be relevant to the work of the project. TIME-BOUND - Indicators should describe by when a certain change is expected. It is not always easy to meet all these criteria!

13 The Logframe matrix Project Description Example Indicators
Means of Verification Goal Improved community health on a sustainable basis Reduced water-borne disease rates. Health records Interviews with community members Purpose A clean, reliable and sustainable supply of water adequate for community needs Water cleanliness at acceptable standards Water availability with no supply shortages of more than (specified time). Supply breakdowns fixed within agreed standards. Water cleanliness tests Site visits to examine supply Objectives Water supply established by (date) Competent village water supply technicians in place by (date) Water supply in place and being used by (date) Village technicians able and dealing with supply maintenance & problems. Site visits Records of supply use. Testing of technicians’ ability to deal with problems. Technicians maintenance logs Outputs 1.1 plan for water supply 1.2 suitable header tank 1.3 operational pump Workable plan produced and used for construction Tank and pump constructed to agreed standards Examination of plan Site visits to examine ‘hardware’ Activities Conduct site survey; identify local labour sources; build header tank; construct pump. Work plan targets met Work plan Construction log

14 Developing indicators that address performance issues
Establish goal, purpose and objectives in the Logframe Identify performance questions for all levels in the objective hierarchy Develop the indicators needed to answer the performance questions Develop the means of verification

15 Criteria for selecting indicators
Does the indicator measure what you want to measure? Does the indicator yield data that it is essential to know (rather than just nice to know)? Does the indicator yield data that is useful for programme planning and management? Is the indicator worth the time and effort to measure?

16 Dimensions of change in child rights programming
Source: Theis, Joachim (2003) Rights Based Monitoring and Evaluation: A Discussion Paper, Save the Children

17 Evaluation and rights based programming
Must gather the views & opinions of children & young people whilst recognising the ‘child’s best interests’ Should be designed with and involve children and young people whenever possible Must address the ‘Three Pillars’, as appropriate

18 Evaluating children and young people’s participation
Impact of children & young people’s participation Impact on the stated objectives Impact on children Impact on adults, communities and institutions Quality of children & young people’s participation Effectiveness of children & young people’s participation

19 Demonstrating a commitment to children’s participation
Transformed power relations between children and adults Raised awareness and developed skills in children’s participation among children and adults Children’s civil rights (information, expression and association) actively promoted throughout the organisation Obstacles overcome and space increased for decision making by children at all levels of society and in all institutions Children and adults supported to claim children’s rights

20 Capacity building - some ideas
Arrange training courses and workshops Organise mentoring support Support development of organisational strategies, policies & standards Support development of organisational systems and procedures Arrange exchange visits & info exchange Produce and distribute case-studies, annotated reading lists, guidelines, tools, manuals & practice standards Facilitate collaborative working on common issues Develop a list of resource persons

21 Useful documents used in developing this presentation
Theis, Joachim (2003) Rights Based Monitoring and Evaluation: A Discussion Paper Save the Children. Available online at Kirby, Perpetua and Sara Bryson (2002) Measuring the Magic?: Evaluating and researching young people’s participation in public decision making, London: Carnegie Young People Initiative. Available online at Children and Participation: Research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people. Available online at

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