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Project design & Planning The Logical Framework Approach An Over View Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland United Nations University.

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Presentation on theme: "Project design & Planning The Logical Framework Approach An Over View Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland United Nations University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project design & Planning The Logical Framework Approach An Over View Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP) Iceland Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) Sri Lanka Project Cycle Management ----- A short training course in project cycle management for subdivisions of MFAR in Sri Lanka MFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP

2 Content An introduction to the logical framework approach An overview of essential tools

3 Learning objectives After this lecture participants will be able to understand the purpose of the logical framework approach Recognize the use of different tools in developing a logframe matrix Understand the difference between a logical framework approach and a logical framework matrix

4 Project cycle management Is a methodology for the preparation, implementation and evaluation of projects based on the principles of the logical framework approach It describes management activities and decision-making procedures used during the life cycle of a project –Key tasks –Roles and responsibilities –Key documents and decision options

5 The logical framework approach The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an open set of tools – for project design and management It’s purpose is to provide a clear and rational framework for planning envisioned activities and determine how to measure a project’s success, while taking external factors into account

6 Why a logical framework approach? It is a clear and concise visual presentation of all the key components of a plan and a basis for monitoring: -How the project will work -What it is going to achieve -What factors relate to its success -How progress will be measured Ensures the relevance, feasibility and sustainability of a project Ensures that fundamental questions are asked and weaknesses are analysed Identifies measurements/indicators of the project’s achievements

7 LFA characteristics Finding the “roots” before setting the objectives Objectives & beneficiary oriented Participatory/Ownership! Consensus oriented Focuses on logical links Systematic common sense!!!

8 A structured project design process –LFA suggests a logical sequence, interlinking the individual steps in the design process Transparency –The reasons why a certain project is meant to be implemented are laid open (what are the problems and whose problems are they?) as well as the internal logic of the project design (what is the project expected to achieve and how?) Participation –of the stakeholders involved in the project design and management, which is an essential prerequisite for the sustainability of a project Benefits of LFA (1)

9 Benefits of LFA (2) A consistent project strategy –The LFA provides tools to clearly link causes and effects. To better assess risks it also takes into account external factors that are crucial for the success of the project, but lie outside the control of the project Objectively verifiable indicators –Indicators describe objectives in measurable “empirically observable” terms and provide the basis for performance measurement and project monitoring and evaluation. Flexibility –in adapting to changing conditions (that are of relevance to the project). The LFA establishes a framework that makes the underlying rationale and assumptions transparent and helps to react to changes by, e.g., revising the design

10 The LFA cycle of operation

11 Two main phases of project formulation Analysis phasePlanning phase PESTLE analysis Identifying external factors Developing logical framework matrix Defining project structure, testing its internal logic and risks. Formulating measurable indicators of success SWOT analysis Identifying and categorizing; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Activity scheduling Determining the sequence and dependency of duration and assigning responsibility Stakeholder analysis Identifying and characterizing potential major stakeholders; assessing their capacity Resource scheduling From the activity schedule, developing input schedules and a budget Problem analysis Identifying key problems, constraints and opportunities; determining cause and effect relationship Objective analysis Developing solutions from the identified problem; identifying means-to-end relationship Strategy analysis Identifying different strategies to achieve solutions; selecting the most appropriate strategy

12 The LFA process of analyzing and planning The log frame matrix PESTLE analysis Stakeholder analysis SWOT analysis Problem analysis Objective analysis Strategy analysis Schedules Reports

13 Context of projects Changes/projects are part of a larger context/ situation Which environment will the project be situated in? Which factors are of importance for achieving the objectives? Analysis of context made through a study and/or through making a PESTLE and SWOT analysis

14 Stakeholder analysis Stakeholders - those who are influenced by and exert an influence on the project entity Mapping of stakeholders and their respective roles Who will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the project Which stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the project

15 Problem analysis Identifying key problems, constraints opportunities; Determining cause/effect relationships Constructing the problem three

16 Objectives’ analysis Developing solutions from the identified problem Identifying means to end effect relationship Building the objective tree

17 Indicators A baseline study might be needed to be able to measure the final results. The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vague Indicators should describe the: –Quantity, how much –Quality, what kind of change –Time, by when

18 Risk analysis - assumptions Analysis of factors which may influence the implementation of the project and hence the achievement of objectives Internal and external risks Alternative strategies may be needed. Risk management

19 Log Frame Matrix

20 Common confusion Logical Framework Approach is often confused with the Logical Framework Matrix LFA is a project preparation methodology –whereas the log frame is a document with a special structure, produced at the end of the LFA process One common misuse of LFA is to design the project first and to "fill in" the Logical Framework Matrix at the end –This is not recommended, as it defeats the whole purpose of the logical framework and the design methodology

21 Logical framework approach helps Because before starting the implementation, projects have: –Clearly identified stakeholders (primary target group and final beneficiaries) –Clearly defined coordination, management and financing arrangements –A monitoring and evaluation system –An appropriate level of financial and economic analysis


23 How the LFA method works depends very much on its’ users LFA is no better and no worse than its’ users

24 References European Commission (2004). Project Cycle Management Guidelines. Downloaded 1 st March from: m_manual_2004_en.pdf Sweedish International Development Agency [SIDA] (2004). The Logical Framework Approach: A summary of the theory behind the LFA Method. Downloaded 14 th of May from: DA1489en_web.pdf&a=2379

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