What’s happening in the Sudan? The fighting started in early 2003 Black Africans from Darfur rebelled against the country’s Arab Muslim leadership –Wanted infrastructure improvements, oil revenues, and a standing in government –Gov’t responded by sending in forces to stop the rebellion Janjaweed militia were paid to fight the rebels Janjaweed burned villages and raped and killed people in Darfur More than 2 million people fled their homes in Darfur to live in refugee camps along the border with Chad –dry and isolated –hard for aid workers to get there
Two primary rebel groups in Darfur –the Sudan Liberation Army –the Justice and Equality Movement Both groups consist of black Africans who oppose their treatment under the Arab Muslim government Gov’t denies the claims that it uses its military to target its own people UN & US imposed economic sanctions –President Bush declared the violence there “genocide” Sudanese gov’t have resisted efforts to stabilize the country A peacekeeping force of 26,000 African Union and UN troops moved into Sudan –Gov’t dictated the terms of the peacekeeping force in Sudan
Is this genocide? Genocide Convention Article 2 In the present convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, such as: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; and (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. Parties to the genocide convention are obligated, under the terms of the convention, to prevent genocide when proof is presented, i.e. to mount a humanitarian intervention. This can include the taking of military action.
Darfur: 10 Years Later 1,600 non-Arab villages burned More than 300,000 deaths More than 3 million displaced Global anti-genocide movement exposed the genocide’s survivors, which forced the Khartoum regime to allow a U.N. peacekeeping force and humanitarian assistance into Darfur –War still going on –Sudan’s President Omar al Bashir indicted by ICC for crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes Government of Sudan has not surrendered him to the ICC
ICC (International Criminal Court) Permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes of aggression –Crimes of Genocide: the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group –Crimes against humanity: murder; extermination; torture; rape; political, racial, or religious persecution –War crimes: murder of civilians; ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps; murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war, killing of prisoners; destruction of cities, towns, and villages
Crimes of Aggression (2017) The invasion or attack by the armed forces of a State into the territory of another State; Bombardment or the use of any weapons by a State against the territory of another State; The blockade of ports or coasts of a state by the armed forces of another State; The action of a State in allowing its territory to be used by another State for perpetrating an act of aggression against a third State; The use of armed bands or mercenaries which carry out acts of armed force against another State.
Rwanda: 1994 Over approximately 100 days, 500,000 people killed (April – July) Culmination of competition between Hutu (majority) and Tutsi (minority) groups –Result of decades of tension and effects of colonialism by Belgium Hutu Power ideology –Asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave the Hutu –Must be resisted at all costs Used the radio to incite and mobilize the population into killing –Compared the Tutsi to cockroaches