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The Rise of Judaism: History

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1 The Rise of Judaism: History
Interesting fact: For more than 2.5 millennia, the traditions and observance ascribed to Abraham and his people have continued to thrive in societies around the globe, many of them distinctly hostile to Jewish practice and belief.

2 Introduction Israelites = Hebrews = Jews
Judaism stood apart from other religions because of monotheism (belief in one all-powerful god). Judaism shares many beliefs with two later religions: Christianity and Islam.

3 Introduction, cont. Abraham is regarded as the first Jew.
He and his followers left Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan (now Lebanon, Israel and Jordan) at the commandment of God, in ~1900 BC. Abraham’s grandson, Jacob (Israel), had 12 sons who each led his own tribe.

4 Abraham’s Journey to Canaan

5 Slavery and Exodus Famine caused the Israelites to migrate to Egypt, where Jacob’s son, Joseph, lived. They were eventually enslaved. Many of the monuments of Egypt’s New Kingdom were built by Israelite slaves.

6 Slavery and Exodus, cont.
Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt in the 13th century BC, possibly when Ramses II ruled. Ten Plagues Crossing of the Red Sea Shortly afterward, Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai.

7 The Ten Commandments I am the Lord your God.
You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. Honor your father and mother. You shall not kill . You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor.

8 The Kingdom of Israel The Israelites fought for 200 years before successfully reclaiming Canaan. Saul became the first king of Israel, uniting the 12 tribes for the first time.

9 The Kingdom of Israel

10 The Kingdom of Israel, cont.
Saul’s successor, David, ruled Israel from 1012 BC to 962 BC, and established Jerusalem as the capital.

11 The Kingdom of Israel, cont.
David’s son, Solomon, built the magnificent temple in Jerusalem, at the cost of high taxes and intensive labor. After Solomon’s death (922 BC), the two southern tribes split from Israel to create the kingdom of Judah.

12 The Divided Kingdoms

13 Exile Israel was conquered in 722 BC by the Assyrians, who scattered the Israelites throughout their empire. Judah was conquered in 597 BC by the Chaldeans, under King Nebuchadnezzar. In 586, after a rebellion, they destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem and captured many Jews to be slaves in Babylon.

14 Exile, cont. Jews continued to maintain their religion while in exile.
The Chaldeans were conquered in 539 BC by the Persians, under Cyrus the Great. He allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple.

15 After Exile Judah/Israel would eventually be ruled by:
the Greeks (Alexander the Great) the Romans the Islamic Empire (when it became known as Palestine) the Ottoman Empire Israel would not be an independent state until 1948.

16 The Rise of Judaism: Some key beliefs

17 Important Aspects of Judaism
The Torah: the first five books of the Jewish Bible. Also known as the Books of Moses. To Christians, the Jewish Bible (24 books total) is known as the Old Testament. The Torah records the history of the Jews and is a collection of various Jewish holy writings. The Talmud has other laws and customs recorded.

18 Important Aspects of Judaism, cont.
Every human being is made in the image of God and has infinite worth. People work in partnership with God to strive to achieve a better world.

19 A Few questions

20 What are the significant events in early Judaism and who are the important people associated with these events? What was radical about Judaism in its earliest days? What’s important about the Ten Commandments…as a covenant and as a code of ethics? How is Judaism significant in history?

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