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Ch 29 – Plant Structure and Function

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1 Ch 29 – Plant Structure and Function
Vocabulary Review Ch 29 – Plant Structure and Function

2 In higher plants, the fundamental tissue that is composed of thin-walled living cells that function in photosynthesis and storage Parenchyma

3 A group of elongated, thick-walled plant cells that support the growth of leaves and stems

4 A type of plant tissue composed of cells that have thickened secondary cell walls that function in plant support Sclerenchyma

5 The outer surface layer of cells of a plant or animal

6 A waxy or fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells

7 A thick-walled, cylindrical cell with tapered ends that is found in xylem and that provides support and conducts water and nutrients Tracheid

8 In plants, the thin, porous areas of a tracheid cell wall

9 In plants, one of the cellular components of a xylem vessel
Vessel element

10 In plants, a tube-like structure in the xylem that is composed of connected cells that conduct water and mineral nutrients Vessel

11 One of the component cells of a sieve tube, which is found mainly in flowering plants
Sieve tube member

12 In the phloem of a flowering plant, a conducting tube that is made up of a series of sieve-tube members stacked end to end Sieve tube

13 A region that connects two sieve cells and that has one or more sieve areas, which consist of clusters of pores through which the cytoplasm of the cells is connected and through which materials are transported Sieve plate

14 A specialized parenchyma cell that assists in transport and that gives rise to sieve tubes in angiosperms Companion cell

15 A region of undifferentiated plant cells that are capable of dividing and developing into specialized plant tissues Meristem

16 The growing region at the tips of stems and roots in plants
Apical meristem

17 Dividing tissue that runs parallel to the long axis of a stem or a root
Lateral meristem

18 In a plant, the lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem and phloem
Vascular cambium

19 A layer of tissue under the cork layer where cork cells are produced
Cork cambium

20 In biology, a joint between two adjacent sections in the stem of a plant where buds form and leaves or branches start to grow; usually marked by a knot or swelling Node

21 The part of a plant stem between two consecutive nodes

22 A shoot or flower that has immature leaves folded in the growing tip

23 A modified leaf that forms a protective covering for a bud until it opens
Bud scale

24 The tissue that is located in the center of the stem of most vascular plants and that is used for storage Pith

25 Secondary xylem produced in gymnosperm and dicot stems

26 Dark wood in center of tree
Heartwood 26

27 Functional, often lighter-colored wood nearer the outside of the trunk

28 The protective outside covering of woody plants, consisting of cork, cork cambium, and phloem

29 Wood formed during the spring when water is plentiful; vascular cambium can form new xylem with cells that are wide and thin walled Springwood

30 Wood produced by vascular cambium in summer, when water is limited; smaller cells with thicker walls

31 In secondary xylem (wood), the growth ring formed in one season
Annual ring

32 A part of a plant that makes sugars and other organic compounds and from which these compounds are transported to other parts of the plant Source

33 Any place where a plant stores or uses organic nutrients, such as sugar or starches

34 The movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another

35 Pressure-flow hypothesis
An explanation for the movement of carbohydrates in the phloem of plants; holds that carbohydrates are actively transported into sieve tubes Pressure-flow hypothesis

36 The process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata; also the release of water vapor into the air by other organisms Transpiration

37 Cohesion-tension theory
An explanation for the movement of water up the stem xylem of tall plants; states that water is pulled up the xylem vessels by the cohesive force between the water molecules and the adhesion of the water molecules to the rigid vessel walls Cohesion-tension theory

38 An organ of climbing plants that grows in spiral form and wraps around another body to help support the plant Tendril

39 The broad, flat portion of a typical leaf

40 The stalk that attaches a leaf to the stem of a plant

41 A leaf that has an undivided blade
Simple Leaf

42 A type of leaf in which the blade is divided into leaflets
Compound leaf

43 One segment of a compound leaf

44 In leaves, the tissue between epidermal layers, where photosynthesis occurs

45 In plants, the layer of vertically elongated cells that contains chloroplasts, that is located beneath the upper epidermis of leaves, and that participates in photosynthesis Palisade mesophyll

46 Inside a leaf, the tissue that is made up of loosely arranged parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts and are surrounded by air spaces that promote the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water throughout the leaf Spongy mesophyll

47 In plants, a bundle of vascular tissue that transports fluids and nutrients

48 The arrangement of veins in a leaf

49 A parallel arrangement of veins; typical of the leaves of monocots
Parallel venation

50 A nonparallel, branching network of veins that is typical of the leaves of dicots
Net venation

51 One of a pair of specialized cells that border a stoma and regulate gas exchange
Guard cell

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