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Plant Structure And Growth

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structure And Growth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structure And Growth

2 The Plant Body is Composed of Cells and Tissues
Tissue systems (Like Organs) made up of tissues Made up of cells

3 Plant Tissue Systems ____________________ ___________________
photosynthesis storage support conduction ___________________ Covering Ground Tissue System Vascular Tissue System Kind of like Organs in an animal Dermal Tissue System

4 Ground Tissue System Parenchyma ___________ Tissue Collenchyma Tissue
Sclerenchyma Tissue

5 Parenchyma Tissue Living Made up of Parenchyma Cells __________ Cells
Primary Walls Functions photosynthesis storage Living

6 Collenchyma Tissue Made up of Collenchyma Cells Living Cells
Primary Walls are thickened Function _Support_____

7 Sclerenchyma Tissue Fibers Sclerids Made up of Sclerenchyma Cells
Usually Dead Primary Walls and secondary walls that are thickened (lignin) _________ or _________ Function Support Fibers Sclerids

8 Vascular Tissue System
Xylem – H2O ___________ Vessel Elements Phloem - Food Sieve-tube Members __________ Tracheids Companion Cells

9 Xylem Tracheids dead at maturity
pits - water moves through pits from cell to cell Vessel Elements perforations - water moves directly from cell to cell

10 Phloem Sieve-tube members Companion Cells _____________
alive at maturity lack nucleus Sieve plates - on end to transport food helps control sieve-tube member cell Sieve-tube member Companion Cells Companion Cell (on the side)

11 Dermal Tissue System Epidermis ___________ – Periderm
Single layer, tightly packed cells Complex Tissue – Does different things in different areas (roots vs. leaves) usually transparent secretes cuticle ___________ – replaces epidermis in woody plants protection Periderm

12 Plant Systems Root System Shoot System ____________ Tap Root
Lateral Roots Stems Nodes (leaves are attached) Internodes Leaves blades petioles Buds Terminal (apical) Axillary Shoot System Plant Systems

13 Plant Growth Meristematic ______________ Tissue
generates cells for new growth (like stem cells in animals) apical meristems lateral meristems

14 Apical Meristems increases length called primary growth
___________ - gives rise to dermal tissue ________________- gives rise to ground tissue _____________ - gives rise to vascular tissue Protoderm Ground Meristem Procambium

15 Lateral Meristems increases girth called secondary growth
__________________- produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem ______________- produces cork (outer most layer of bark) Vascular Cambium Cork Cambium

16 Pine Tree w/ 8 Cotyledons!

17 The Root System Functions Systems Tap roots Fibrous roots anchor plant
absorb minerals, water and nutrients store food Systems ____________ - one large root with smaller lateral roots (dicots) ____________- threadlike roots (monocots) Tap roots Fibrous roots

18 Root Structure Four Regions
_________– protection, also secrete polysaccharide slime to lubricate Region of ___________- new cells Region of __________ - cells get longer Region of _________ - cells begin to specialize Root Cap Cell Division Elongation Maturation


20 Root Tissue Stele Protoderm - gives rise to the epidermis
Ground Meristem Cortex (external to vascular tissue) Procambium - gives rise to the _______ (the vascular tissue of a root or stem) xylem and phloem may include pith (parenchyma cells surrounded by vascular tissue) Stele

21 Dicot Root vs. Monocot Xylem (larger, in red) Endodermis
Phloem (smaller, greenish) Pericycle – one layer IN from endoderm, gives rise to lateral roots “Pith” – central core of parenchyma cells surrounded by xylem and phloem

22 Modified Roots Food Storage Pnematophores Aerial Roots Water Storage
carrots, sweet potatoes, yams Water Storage pumpkin family Propagative Roots cherries, pears Pnematophores mangroves Aerial Roots orchids Buttress Roots tropical trees Haustoria dodder

23 Shoot System

24 The Shoot System Made up of Stems, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits
Stems - support, conduction, growth Leaves - photosynthesis Flowers - pollination Fruits - seed protection, dispersal

25 Stems (Primary Growth)
Protoderm - gives rise to the epidermis Procambium - gives rise to the stele xylem and phloem in vascular bundles dicots - found in ring monocots - scattered throughout includes “pith” in dicots Ground Meristem Cortex

26 ____________– stele (vascular tissue) divided into strands in stems and leaves
Vascular Bundle Sclerenchyma cells Phloem Xylem

27 Dicot Stem Vs. Monocot (35.16)
Vascular Bundle Ground Tissue (Pith) (Cortex) How can you tell root from stem?

28 Stems (Secondary Growth)
Occurs to increase girth (thickness) Vascular Cambium produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem Cork Cambium produces cork and phelloderm (thin layer of parenchyma cells) together these structures are called periderm (Cork Cambium, cork, phelloderm)

29 Secondary Growth Derivative Vascular cambium


31 Secondary Growth of a Stem

32 Secondary Growth of a Stem (Inside to Outside)
Secondary Phloem Primary Phloem Cortex Phelloderm Cork Cambium Cork (outer layer of bark) Pith Primary Xylem Secondary Xylem (wood) Vascular Cambium Periderm

33 Older, inner layers of 2° Xylem – no longer transport water
Younger, outer layers of 2° Xylem still function in transport All tissue outside vascular cambium Missing cortex and phelloderm!


35 ___________ (Early) growth occurs more
quickly. Cells are large and thin walled and have less strength. Summerwood (Late) growth occurs more slowly. Cells are thicker, more dense, and stronger. Springwood

36 Secondary Growth of a Stem

37 Modified Stems Stolons Cladophylls
__________ - horizontal stems above the ground (strawberries) Rhizomes - horizontal stems below the ground (Irises) Tubers - swollen areas of rhizomes or stolons (Potatoes) Bulbs & Corms - vertical shoots under ground (onions, garlic w/ mod storage leaves) _____________ - cactus pads Cladophylls

38 Leaf Structure

39 Leaves Epidermis Mesophyll - middle of leaf
__________ - openings on underside of leaf Guard Cells - surround stomata Cuticle - waxy coating excreted by epidermis Mesophyll - middle of leaf ___________ - photosynthesis Spongy layer - gas exchange Stomata Palisade Layer

40 Modified Leaves Tendrils ___________- attachment
Bracts –modified leaves that surround a group of flowers Spines - protection Storage Leaves - succulents

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