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Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Chapter 23

2 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Plants are as successful if not more successful than animals Seed plants have three main structures: Roots Stems Leaves Linked together by various means

3 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Roots Absorbs water and nutrients Anchor plant to the ground Hold soil in place and prevent erosion Protect from soil bacteria Transport water and nutrients Provide upright support

4 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Stems Support for the plant body Carries nutrients throughout plant Defense system to protect against predators and infection Few millimeters to 100 meters

5 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Leaves Main photosynthetic systems Suseptable to extreme drying Sight of oxygen/carbon dioxide intake and release

6 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Plant tissue systems Exist within the root, stems, and leaves Dermal tissue Vascular tissue Ground tissue

7 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Dermal Tissue Outer covering Single layer of cells Cuticle – waxy coating Trichomes – Spiny projections on the leaf Roots have dermal tissue Root hairs Guard Cells

8 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Vascular Tissue Transport System Subsystems Xylem Phloem Subsystems are used to carry fluids throughout plant

9 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Xylem Two types Seed plants Angiosperms Tracheid – long narrow cells Walls are connected to neighboring cells Will eventually die Vessel Element – wider that trachieds

10 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Phloem Sieve Tube Elements Cells arranged end to end Pump sugars and other foods Companion Cells Surround sieve tube elements Support phloem cells

11 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Ground Tissue Cells between dermal and vascular tissue Parenchyma Thin cell walls, large vacuoules Collenchyma Strong, flexible cell walls Sclerenchyma Extremely thick, rigid cell walls

12 23-1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Plant Growth Meristems – tissues responsible for growth Undifferentiated cells Apical Meristem Produce growth increased length Differentiation Cells will assume roles in the plant Flower Development Starts in the meristem

13 23-2 Roots Types of Roots Taproots Fibrous roots Found in dicots
Long, thick root Hickory and oak trees Fibrous roots Found in monocots No single root larger than any other Many thin roots

14 23-2 Roots Root Structure Key role in water/mineral transport
Outside layer Epidermis Root hairs Cortex Central cylinder – vascular system Root Cap – cellular production Key role in water/mineral transport

15 23-2 Roots Root Functions Anchor plant Absorb water Absorb nutrients

16 23-2 Roots Plant Nutrient Uptake Plant requirements
Soil type determines plant type Plant requirements Oxygen, CO2 Nitrogen Phosphorus Postassium Magnesium Calcium Trace elements

17 23-2 Roots Active Transport in Plants Vascular Cylinder Root Pressure
Root hairs use ATP Pump minerals from soil Causes water molecules to follow by osmosis Vascular Cylinder Casparian Strip – water retention Root Pressure Forces water up into the plant

18 23-3 Stems Stem Structure Essential part of transport system
Produce leaves, branches, and flowers Hold leaves up Transport substance between roots and leaves Essential part of transport system Function in storage and photosynthesis

19 23-3 Stems Xylem and phloem – major tubule systems
Transport water and nutrients Composed of three tissue layers Contain nodes – attachment for leaves Internodes – regions between the nodes Buds – undeveloped tissue

20 23-3 Stems Stem Types Monocot – vascular bundles are scattered throughout Distinct epidermis Dicot – vascular tissue arranged in a cylinder Pith – parenchyma cells inside the ring

21 23-3 Stems Stem Growth Primary growth – new cells produced at the root tips and shoots Increases the length Secondary growth – increase in stem width Vascular cambium – produces tissue and increases thickness Cork cambium – produces outer covering of stems

22 23-3 Stems Formation of Vascular Cambium
Xylem and phloem bundles present intially Secondary growth initiates production of a thin layer The vascular cambium divides Produces new xylem and phloem

23 23-3 Stems Formation of wood Wood – layers of exlem
Produced year after year Results from the older xylem not conducting water – heartwood Becomes darker with age Sapwood – surrounds heartwood

24 23-3 Roots Formation of Bark
All the tissues outside the vascular cambium Consists of outermost layers of dead cork Water proof

25 23-4 Leaves Main sight of photosynthesis Consist of:
Blade – thin flattened section Petiole – stalk that attaches stem to blade Covered by epidermis and cuticle Create water proof barrier

26 23-4 Leaves Leaf Functions Photosynthesis – occurs in the mesophyll
Palisade mesophyll – absorb light Spongy mesophyll – beneath palisede level Stomata – pores in the underside of the leaf Guard Cells – Surround the stomata

27 23-4 Leaves Transpiration Loss of water through its leaves
Replaced by water drawn into the leaf

28 23-4 Leaves Gas Exchange Take in CO2 and release O2
Can also do the opposite – How? Gas exchange takes place at the stomata Not open all the time Stomata is controlled by water pressure in guard cells

29 23-5 Transport in Plants Water Transport
Active transport and root pressure Cause water to move from soil to roots Capillary action Combined with active transport and root pressure, moves materials throughout the plant

30 23-5 Transport in Plants Capillary Transport
Capillary transport results from both cohesive and adhesive forces Water molecules attracted to one another Water is also attracted to the xylem tubes in the plant Causes water to move from roots to the stem and upward

31 23-5 Transport in Plants Transpiration
Evaporation is the major moving force As water is lost, osmotic pressure moves water out of vascular tissue This pulls water up from the stem to the leaves Affected by heat, humidity, and wind

32 23-5 Transport in Plants Controlling Transpiration
Open the stomata – increase water loss Close the stomata – decrease water loss

33 23-5 Transport in Plants Transpiration and Wilting
Osmotic pressure – keeps plants semi-rigid Wilting is a result of high transpiration rates Loss of water causes a drop in osmotic pressure Loss of rigidity Conserves water

34 23-5 Transport in Plants Nutrient Transport Source to Sink
Most nutrients are pushed through plant Nutrient movement takes place in phloem Source to Sink Source – any cell that produces sugars Sink – any cell where sugars are used Pressure-flow Hypothesis

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