1 Chapter #42 – Plant Anatomy & Nutrient Transport How Are Plant Bodies Organized; How Do They Grow? p. 860The Tissues and Cell Types of Plants? p. 862The Structures, Functions of Leaves, Roots, & Stems? p. 865How Do Plants Acquire Mineral Nutrients? p. 873How Do Plants Move Water Upward from Roots to Leaves? p. 876
2 Plant Anatomy Systems and Tissues How Are Plant Bodies Organized, and How Do They Grow?Flowering Plants Consist of a Root System and a Shoot System.As Plants Grow, Meristem Cells Give Rise to Differentiated Cells.
3 Herbaceous Plants Soft-bodied plants with flexible stems. Most are annual (live only one year).Exhibit primary growth.e.g. lettuce, beans, grasses
4 Woody Plants Plants with hard, thickened, woody stems Most are perennial (live many years)Exhibit primary and secondary growthe.g. trees, bushes
20 Stems:EpidermisIn herbaceous plants and young woody plants, the stem is covered with epidermis.Epidermis secretes cuticle, has stomata, and may be photosynthetic.
21 Stems:Cortex and PithCortex layer contains parenchyma cells and vascular bundles.Pith makes up the center of the stem, and is absent in hollow stems.
22 Stems: Vascular Tissue Vascular bundles are in the cortex. While primary xylem and phloem are made by the apical meristem, secondary xylem and phloem come from the vascular cambium, another meristem tissue.
23 Trunk: Primary Growth Primary Growth is primarily vertical. This kind of growth gives the plant its height.
24 Trunk: Secondary Growth Secondary growth is seen in woody plants. This kind of growth produces stronger, thicker stems from the vascular cambium and cork cambium.Horizontal Growth
25 Wood and Bark Xylem makes up the wood of trees and shrubs. Live phloem cells form the green bark.Dead cork cells make up the bark.
26 Annual RingsTrees in temperate zones grow at different rates in different seasons, causing annual rings to form.In some parts of the tropics, if seasons vary little, tree rings are indistinct.
27 Stop and think:On your own paper, list any stems or products of stems you have used in the last few days.What qualities of these stems made them useful?
28 Meristem CellsMeristem cells are undifferentiated cells; able to divide as long as the plant lives.Apical meristems are located at tips of roots and shoots.
29 Meristem CellsDifferentiated cells are mature cells specialized for a specific function.Derived from meristem cells that lose the ability to divide.Usually do not divide.Example: vessel elements and tracheids of xylem.
30 Meristem Cells Meristems allow plants to grow throughout their lives. Primary growth occurs by division of apical meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter cells.Responsible for growth in length of roots and shoots of all plants.
31 Meristem CellsSecondary growth occurs by division of lateral meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter cells.Responsible for an increase in diameter of roots and shoots of most conifers and dicots.Lateral meristems or cambia (singular, cambium) run parallel to the long axis of roots and shoots.