Presentation on theme: "Development Chapter 9 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development Chapter 9 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9eJames M. RubensteinChapter 9DevelopmentGeog 1050Victoria Alapo, Instructor
2 Indicators of Development Economic indicators of developmentGross domestic product per capita (GDP). Read pg This is the value of the total output of goods & services produced in a country, normally during a year. See problems of measurement, on next slide.Types of jobs e.g. primary, 2ndry or tertiaryConsumer goods (NOT essentials like food, clothing and shelter).Social & Demographic indicators of developmentEducation and literacyHealth and welfareLife expectancyInfant mortality rateCrude birth rate
3 informal / traditional economies are not included in taxes. Annual GDP per CapitaAnnual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita averages over $20,000 in most developedcountries but under $5,000 in most less developed countries. One large problem is,informal / traditional economies are not included in taxes.
4 Employment Changes by Sector Percentage employment in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of MDCs has changed dramatically, but change has been slower in LDCs.
5 Student-Teacher Ratios Students per teacher, primary school level. Primary school teachers have much larger classsizes in LDCs than in MDCs, partly because of the large numbers of young peoplein the population (Also, refer to Fig. 2-15).
6 Persons per PhysicianThere is a physician for every 500 or fewer people in most MDCs, while thousands of peopleshare a doctor on average in LDCs. Especially in rural areas.Urban areas tend to be much better served.
7 Calories per CapitaDaily available calories per capita as percent of requirements. In MDCs, the average personconsumes one-third or more over the required average minimum, which accounts for the obesityfound in North America and some affluent countries.In LDCs, the average person gets only the minimum requirement or less.
8 More and Less Developed Regions More developed regionsAnglo-America – Western EuropeEastern Europe – JapanSouth PacificLess developed regionsLatin America – East AsiaSoutheast Asia – Middle EastSouth Asia – Sub-Saharan Africa
9 More and Less Developed Regions The heavy red line separates affluent countries from the less affluent countries. Australia andNew Zealand are included. In essence, these are the countries that CONTROL the world.Next slide is even more telling, and probably more accurate since the fall of the Soviet Union.
10 Core and Periphery in World Economy This north polar projection of the world shows that most of the MDCs are in a core areanorth of 30° N latitude. The LDCs are mostly on the periphery of this map.
11 Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) The GDI combines four measures of development (income, literacy, education, and lifeexpectancy) reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.No country on earth has achieved equality (glass ceiling?), some just better than others.
12 Female–Male Income Differences Women earn less income than men in ALL countries, but the gender gap is especially high inthe Middle East (and Islamic parts of the world), South Asia, and Latin America.
13 Gender Differences in School Enrollment As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
14 Life Expectancy and Gender Women’s life expectancy is several years longer than men’s in MDCs,but only slightly longer in many LDCs. Although in some countries there is female infanticide.
15 Women as LegislatorsOver 20% of legislative seats are held by women in China, some European nations, and severalLDCs (Eastern and Southern Africa). In many other LDCs, under 10% are held by women. InTraditional Africa, many rulers were QUEENS. Women’s rights actually fell back during thecolonial era in many places. Ghana is a Matrilineal Society for instance. And Iyalodes(female council members), oversaw women’s rights in Traditional Yoruba King’s Councils.
16 Debt as Percent of Income Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs.Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt. Many cannot even pay the interest.
17 Development Strategies Financing developmentLoans (World Bank, IMF) to build capital projects that would supposedly industrialize and revamp economy.These loans lead to:Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) which are supposed to “encourage international trade”, but actually leads to devaluation of currencies and inflation, and hardship.Loss of civil service jobs (which many developing countries depend upon), and streamlining of free govt services (e.g. healthcare and education) which most citizens in such countries cannot afford in the first place.
18 materials have been kept artificially low by the West. Minerals in AfricaAlthough several African countries have important minerals, the world prices ofmany of these have lagged behind the prices of manufactured / industrial products,services, and energy. As you saw in Africa video, historically, the prices for rawmaterials have been kept artificially low by the West.