Presentation on theme: "International Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 International Development LQ’s for Development – chapter 91) Why does development vary among countries?2) Where are more and less developed countries distributed?3) How does development affect gender?4) Why do LDC’s face obstacles to development?The single most important geographic fact of development is its striking UNEVENNESS.1
2 Development indicators? Take notes under each column as we discuss! EconomicSocialDemographic
3 What is development? What does it mean to be developed? Developing?
4 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress More Developed Country (MDC):have a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. The criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), the per capita income,level of industrialization,amount of widespreadinfrastructure andgeneral standard of living.
5 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress Less Developed Country (LDC):Meets three criteria:PovertyHuman resource weakness (poor nutrition, health, education and adult literacy)Economic vulnerability: unstable agricultural production, lacking exports of goods and services, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters
6 Human Development Index (HDI) Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).
7 What Do We Mean By Development? Key Issue 1… The three objectives of developmentincreases in availability and improvements in the distribution of food, shelter, health, protection, etc.improvements in ‘levels of living,’ including higher incomes, more jobs, better education, etc.expansions in the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations
9 Measuring Development - HDI United Nations Development Program Overview 2005 Click for Animated GraphsEconomic IndicatorsGross Domestic Product (GDP, also GNIPP)Types of Work (Economic Sectors)Social IndicatorsEducation and LiteracyHealth and WelfareDemographic IndicatorsLife Expectancy ( years)Infant Mortality (<10 - >100 per thousand)Natural Increase ( %)
19 ECONOMIC INDICATORSPrimary sector: directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestrySecondary sector: includes manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful productsTertiary sector: involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
21 ECONOMIC INDICATORS**Quinary sector: jobs in health, education, research, government, retailing, tourism, and recreation.**Quaternary sector: jobs in business services such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling.
22 ECONOMIC INDICATORSProductivity: value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.Value added: gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.Gross=total
23 ***New International Division of Labor!!!*** Why have primary and secondary jobs declined in MDC’s in recent years??? What are businesses doing?OUTSOURCING!What does AP call this?***New International Division of Labor!!!***
24 Social Indicators Access to healthcare 8% is spent on healthcare in MDC, 6% in LDCMDC = more calories per dayPublic healthcare: Obamacare (ACA), Europe’s healthcare systemSocial Security, public assistanceSanitation and utility (gas, power)servicesEducation and LiteracyAverage schooling years: 10 years in MDC’s, a couple years in LDC’sStudent/teacher ratio is twice as high in MDC’s
25 Measuring Development Social IndicatorsEducation and Literacy
26 Measuring Development Social IndicatorsHealth and Welfare
27 Demographic Indicators Life Expectancy: 60’s in LDC, 70’s MDCYoung people is 6 times higher than old people in LDCLiteracyInfant MortalityNIRCBRGII: Gender Inequality indexGDI: Gender related Development IndexGEM: Gender empowerment index
28 Key Issues 2 & 32: Where are more and less developed countries distributed?3: Where does level of development vary by gender?
30 Location of More and Less Developed Countries Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.
31 Why the HDI? Read about your assignmed region and tell us something about it! Pages 301-309 MDCLDCAnglo-America: 0.94Western Europe: 0.93Eastern Europe: 0.80*Japan 0.94*South Pacific: 0.87Latin America: 0.80East Asia: 0.76Middle East: 0.68Southeast Asia 0.58South Asia: 0.58Sub-Saharan Africa: 0.51