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International Development

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Presentation on theme: "International Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Development
LQ’s for Development – chapter 9 1) Why does development vary among countries? 2) Where are more and less developed countries distributed? 3) How does development affect gender? 4) Why do LDC’s face obstacles to development? The single most important geographic fact of development is its striking UNEVENNESS. 1

2 Development indicators? Take notes under each column as we discuss!
Economic Social Demographic

3 What is development? What does it mean to be developed? Developing?

4 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress
More Developed Country (MDC): have a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. The criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.

5 Development: evolution, growth, expansion, enlargement, progress
Less Developed Country (LDC): Meets three criteria: Poverty Human resource weakness (poor nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) Economic vulnerability: unstable agricultural production, lacking exports of goods and services, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters

6 Human Development Index (HDI)
Developed by the United Nations, the HDI combines several measures of development: life expectancy at birth, adjusted GDP per capita, and knowledge (schooling and literacy).

7 What Do We Mean By Development? Key Issue 1…
The three objectives of development increases in availability and improvements in the distribution of food, shelter, health, protection, etc. improvements in ‘levels of living,’ including higher incomes, more jobs, better education, etc. expansions in the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations

8 What is the Human Development Index? (HDI)

9 Measuring Development - HDI
United Nations Development Program Overview 2005 Click for Animated Graphs Economic Indicators Gross Domestic Product (GDP, also GNIPP) Types of Work (Economic Sectors) Social Indicators Education and Literacy Health and Welfare Demographic Indicators Life Expectancy ( years) Infant Mortality (<10 - >100 per thousand) Natural Increase ( %)




13 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Gross domestic product: value of total output of goods and services produced in a country.


15 Gini: income distribution of a nation’s residents
GNI: Gross national income PPP: purchasing power parity, compares currencies




19 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Primary sector: directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry Secondary sector: includes manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful products Tertiary sector: involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment.

20 Types of Jobs: Comparing MDC vs. LDC

21 ECONOMIC INDICATORS **Quinary sector: jobs in health, education, research, government, retailing, tourism, and recreation. **Quaternary sector: jobs in business services such as trade, insurance, banking, advertising, and wholesaling.

22 ECONOMIC INDICATORS Productivity: value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it. Value added: gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy. Gross=total

23 ***New International Division of Labor!!!***
Why have primary and secondary jobs declined in MDC’s in recent years??? What are businesses doing? OUTSOURCING! What does AP call this? ***New International Division of Labor!!!***

24 Social Indicators Access to healthcare
8% is spent on healthcare in MDC, 6% in LDC MDC = more calories per day Public healthcare: Obamacare (ACA), Europe’s healthcare system Social Security, public assistance Sanitation and utility (gas, power)services Education and Literacy Average schooling years: 10 years in MDC’s, a couple years in LDC’s Student/teacher ratio is twice as high in MDC’s

25 Measuring Development
Social Indicators Education and Literacy

26 Measuring Development
Social Indicators Health and Welfare

27 Demographic Indicators
Life Expectancy: 60’s in LDC, 70’s MDC Young people is 6 times higher than old people in LDC Literacy Infant Mortality NIR CBR GII: Gender Inequality index GDI: Gender related Development Index GEM: Gender empowerment index

28 Key Issues 2 & 3 2: Where are more and less developed countries distributed? 3: Where does level of development vary by gender?

29 Let’s read intro to Key Issue 2 on page 301

30 Location of More and Less Developed Countries
Development generally reflects a North-South split in the world.

31 Why the HDI? Read about your assignmed region and tell us something about it! Pages 301-309
MDC LDC Anglo-America: 0.94 Western Europe: 0.93 Eastern Europe: 0.80* Japan 0.94* South Pacific: 0.87 Latin America: 0.80 East Asia: 0.76 Middle East: 0.68 Southeast Asia 0.58 South Asia: 0.58 Sub-Saharan Africa: 0.51

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