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Development Chapter 9 By: Janessa Polanco, Olivia Parra, Fiona Dam, & Juan Garcia VS.

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Presentation on theme: "Development Chapter 9 By: Janessa Polanco, Olivia Parra, Fiona Dam, & Juan Garcia VS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Chapter 9 By: Janessa Polanco, Olivia Parra, Fiona Dam, & Juan Garcia VS

2 Many couples give birth to an overabundance of children in order to support family. There is no health care to treat things like tuberculosis, or to almost guarantee a live birth. Compared, to the U.S. where the average income is $4000 a month, the average working household gets around $16, barely enough to supply the minimum amount of food. Case Study: Bangladesh’s Development Challenges

3 20 students/ 1 teacher 98% literacy rate life span: 70 Infant Mortality Rate: <.5% NIR: 0.2% CBR: 12 to 1000 MDC 30 students/ 1 teacher 60% literacy rate life span: 60 if survived first 5 years Infant Mortality Rate: 6% NIR: 1.5% CBR: 23 to 1000 LDC

4 VS Sub-Saharan Africa United States


6 How HDI is Calculated You classify a country by selecting one economic factor, two social factors, and one demographic factor. Then from there a team of analysts best reveal a country’s level of development: Economic factor: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita Social factors: literacy rate and amount of education Demographic factor: life expectancy

7 More Developed Regions HDI North America0.95 Europe0.93 Russia0.73 Japan0.96 Oceania0.90 Less Developed RegionsHDI Latin America0.82 East Asia0.77 SW Asia and N Africa0.74 Southeast Asia0.73 Central Asia0.70 South Asia0.61 Sub-Saharan Africa0.51

8 Brandt Line

9 three-sector hypothesis: common system of division of major economic activities into: primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors ↛ primary: acquiring of natural resources and raw materials ■ wood, steel, coal ■ industries such as forestry, fishing, and farming ↛ secondary: production/processing of merchandise ■ homes, devices, vehicles, pottery, building structures ↛ tertiary: offered services ■ real estate agents, management, financial assistance Economic Sectors

10 Theories and Models of Economic Development ↛ Harrod-Domar Growth Model - economy’s growth rate: ■ amount of saving/efficiency of investmentefficiency ■ net investment leads to more capital accumulation, which generates higher output and income. ↛ Lewis Structural Change Model - dual economy: ■ models the change of capitalist and subsistence sectors ■ higher incomes generate savings/more savings mean more fund available for investment.

11 According to the UN gender inequality exists in every country in favor of males, some more than others. Gender-Related Development Index

12 ● Economic indicator of gender differences: Per capita female income as a percentage of per capita male income. ● Social indicators of gender differences: # of females enrolled in school compared to males and % of of literate females: % of literate males ● Demographic indicator of gender differences: life expectancy of females to males How GDI is calculated

13 Self-Sufficiency Self-Sufficiency: “Balanced equally. Equal economy, reduce poverty, isolate businesses to help, barriers limit imports, restrict local business” -quizlet Purpose? “Under self-sufficiency, incomes in the countryside keep pace with those in the city, and reducing poverty takes precedence over encouraging a few people to become wealthy consumers.”

14 How Self-Sufficiency is Promoted ❖ Taxes: also known as tariffs are placed on imported items so they are not easily affordable ❖ Quotas: used to limit the quantity of imported goods ❖ Licenses: required to restrict # of legal importers

15 1.End poverty and hunger 2.Achieve universal primary education 3.Promote gender equality 4.Reduce child mortality 5.Improve maternal health 6.Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7.Ensure environmental stability 8.Develop a global partnership for development Millennium Development Goals

16 ❖ fair trade: products are made and traded according to standards that protect workers and small businesses in LDCs ❖ productivity: the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it ❖ value added: the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy Vocabulary

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