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The Biosphere: An Introduction to Biomes. Earths Biomes Ecology Organization Population Community Ecosystem -scientific study of the interactions between.

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Presentation on theme: "The Biosphere: An Introduction to Biomes. Earths Biomes Ecology Organization Population Community Ecosystem -scientific study of the interactions between."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Biosphere: An Introduction to Biomes

2 Earths Biomes Ecology Organization Population Community Ecosystem -scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their physical environments No organism exists alone - each is part of a linked system of living and nonliving elements - all the members of a species living in a given location - all the interacting populations in a given area -the biotic and abiotic factors functioning together in a given area

3 BiosphereBiomes - the part of earth where life exists (the outer surface of earth) large geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystems Climate — average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time. Includes: temperature & precipitation Vegetation (plant types) —depends on climate -affects which animals and other organisms the area can support – a biome is defined by its plants Location — relates to latitude on earth and elevation share similar traits

4 Regional Climate influences distribution of biological communities

5 Types of biomes Limiting factors 2 broad classifications: Terrestrial – land biomes Aquatic – water biomes - the supply of certain abiotic factors will control what types of species can adapt and survive in the area These abiotic factors include: temperature precipitation soils wind sunlight


7 Terrestrial BiomesAquatic Biomes Tropical rain forest Grassland Desert Deciduous forest Boreal (coniferous forest) Tundra Marine (salt water) : Ocean Estuaries Freshwater : Lakes and Ponds Rivers and Streams


9 Tropical Rainforests

10 Tropical Rainforest  At or near equator  Greatest diversity of living organisms –Large number of different animals, adapted to diverse niches –Lush, diverse plant growth –Different ecosystems within tree layers  The most rainfall –Very warm and wet –Good drainage –Rapid decomposition = poor soil


12 Grassland savanna Prairie (North America) Hagemann, Judy. antelopeislandhillsprairie.jpg. August 1, 2005. Pics4Learning. 24 Jan 2008 http://pics.tech4learning.com Pampa (South America)

13 Grasslands

14 Grassland   Unbroken sea of grass   Plants adapted to grazing by animals   Many herbivores… … and their predators   Fires are important   Not enough water to support trees –Grazing and fire inhibit other trees

15 Deserts

16 Deserts

17 Desert  More N & S of equator  Climate: dry (duh)  Plants adapted to scarce water –Many plants spread seeds (e.g. annual wildflowers) –Water conservation (cactus)  Many types of animals – very well adapted –Burrowing –Nocturnal –Small

18 Deciduous Forest


20 Temperate deciduous forests  Mostly northern regions  Deciduous = lose leaves each winter  Plenty of moisture  Cold winters / warm to hot summers –Some animals hibernate  Diverse animal habitats: –Foliage to hide in –Seed & fruit-eaters … and their predators and their predators

21 Kolk, Melinda. taiga1.jpg. September 2002. Pics4Learning. 24 Jan 2008

22 Coniferous Forests  Also called: –Taiga –Boreal forest

23 Coniferous forests  Far north of equator and high latitudes  Harsh winters (much snow), short summers, rich soil  Abundant, open water  Plants adapted to cold  Animals adapted for cold: –Fur –Hibernate –Migrate


25 Tundra

26 Tundra  Only in Northern hemisphere  Permafrost (frozen soil) –Small plants because of limited soil depth (treeless)  Short growing season  Lichens, small herbs, mosses  Birds & cold-adapted animals –Will migrate to avoid coldest part of winter –large & small herbivores … and their predators

27 Aquatic Biomes -represent the largest ecosystem on earth (over 70% of earth) Marine Biomes: - Ocean - Intertidal Zones - Estuaries Freshwater Biomes : - Lakes and Ponds - Rivers and Streams

28 Oceans - continuous body of water that provides stable environment for a diverse group of organisms - absorbs and holds large quantities of solar heat that helps to stabilize the earth’s atmosphere Marine Biomes

29 Marine Mammals

30 Estuaries -found where rivers and streams flow into the ocean (bays, mud flats, salt marshes) -organisms must adapt to frequent changes (nutrient and salt concentration, temperature)

31 Freshwater Biomes: Lakes and Ponds Rivers and Streams

32 Lakes and Ponds: - standing bodies of water that vary in size -lakes that are rich in organic matter and vegetation tend to be murky -lakes that contain little organic matter tend to be clear

33 Rivers and Streams: - bodies of water that move continuously in one direction -organisms must adapt to the current -slower moving rivers contain more nutrients and thus can support a greater diversity of life

34 Biomes  Heavily modified by human activity –US grasslands barely exist  Overtaken by farming –Rainforest destruction –Deciduous forest destruction for homes  Biomes are defined by potential, not actual plants and animals  Biomes defined by climate of region  Limiting factors – mostly temperature – rainfall

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