What is Political Geography? Study of governmental systems Study of nation-states
Nations, States, and Nation States? Nation – a people with common culture, usually in a specific territory + State – sovereign government, located in specific territory = Nation-State – nation and state in same territory
What kinds of borders? Political Borders –artificial, set by govt. (imaginary lines) Example: North and South Korea Natural Borders – created by physical features Example: Rio Grande River (Mexico and US)
Major Functions of Governments Different government systems divide powers and responsibilities differently. Separation of powers, distribution of powers vary by country. Executive – authority for the day- to-day operation of the government Legislative – decision-making assembly or other body Judicial – law and justice issues
What are the major types of political systems? Complete the “Government Chart” as we go along. We will discuss good things and bad things about each one.
“Democracy” or “Republic” Who has power? citizens hold political power What else should you know? 2 main kinds – “direct” democracy, “representative” democracy Example: USA, most modern nations
“Monarchy” Who has power? King or Queen What else should you know? Usually shares power with other groups, typically a legislature – making them a “constitutional monarchy” Example? Great Britain, Jordan
“Authoritarian” Who has power? Government has all political power (not the people) What else should you know? One ruler – “Dictatorship” Group – “Oligarchy” Total control of all aspects of a citizen’s life – “Totalitarianism” Examples? Nazi Germany, Soviet Union Cuba, North Korea, Syria People’s Republic of China
“Anarchy” or “Failed State” Who has power? Nobody, or gangs and warlords… violence = political power in a failed state. There often is a government, but it has no control over its territory. What else should you know? The instability is often fueled by illegal drugs or resources, because of external interference. Examples: See map
Judaism Who – Abraham, Moses When – circa 3000 BC Where – Israel Holy Books - Torah, and Talmud Major Divisions – Orthodox, Conservative, Reform Basic Beliefs Monotheistic – one God Jews are the chosen people of God, must follow his laws. Jerusalem/Israel are holy lands.
Christianity Who – Jesus of Nazareth When – circa 30AD Where – Israel Holy Books – Old and New Testaments Major Divisions – Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox Basic Beliefs Jesus Christ is the son of God Death and resurrection Came to redeem mankind from sin.
Islam Who – Mohammed When – circa 620AD Where – Arabian Peninsula Holy Books – Quran and the Hadith Major Divisions – Sunni, Shia Basic Beliefs There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of God Quran is word of God. Muslims must perform the “Five Pillars of Faith”.
Hinduism Who – Ancient priests of India When – 5000 –3000 BCE Where – India Holy Books – Vedas, Bhagavad- Gita Major Divisions – Numerous schools and traditions Basic Beliefs Polytheistic Reincarnation and Karma – cause and effect Ultimate goal – oneness with “Brahman” (God, Reality)
Buddhism Who – Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) When – 500 BC Where – Northern India Holy Books - Tripitaka Major Divisions – Mahayana, Theravada Basic Beliefs Life is suffering, caused by wanting things, caused by ignorance. Reincarnation and karma “8-fold Path” allows escape to Nirvana