Setting Use the Cornell note-taking system please.
Setting ► The context in which the action of a story occurs Location Time Social environment of the characters (manners, customs, and moral values that govern the characters’ society) ► How you build the world around your characters will play a vital role in the overall believability of your novel. ► Setting can have a powerful effect on the theme in the narrative and on the reader's emotions. ► Some settings are relatively unimportant, but some are the most important part of understanding everything else about the story.
Location ► Where does the action take place? (generally and/or specifically) Location may be symbolic: a "journey,“ "battle,“ "vacation" or "graduation" ► What does it look like, sound like, or feel like? Imagery: description that appeal to the senses ► What relationship does place have to characterization and theme? Sometimes, location can enhance the mood of a scene. ► Consider this: What would be an appropriate setting for a scary story?
Time ► At what time of the year does the action take place? Even seasons of the year and weather are symbolic of various meanings. ► How long does it take for the action to occur? The passage of time may affect the development of characters. ► How is the passage of time perceived? Consider this: If a movie were a text we were reading, why would the director decide to use slow motion for certain scenes?
Social Environment ► What are the manners, customs, rituals, and etiquette of the character’s society? ► The type of world you create will determine the reactions and behaviors of your characters. ► Consider this: a woman's role in society will vary drastically from the 1920's Midwest USA to a present day professional woman of a major city. A story set in either of these times should reflect the social customs of that particular culture.
Character and Meaning Character and Meaning ► By getting to know characters, we learn something about people and life. ► Determine whether the characters are: Flat (one-dimensional) Rounded (three-dimensional) An individual A stereotype Static (unchanging throughout the story) Dynamic (changing) ► Other terms to be familiar with: protagonist (central character) antagonist (source of conflict for the central character) foil ( a character who contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist ) to highlight various features of that other character's personality) protagonist
Opening Activity ► Please take out the Monkey’s Paw reading. I will stamp those that are annotated with the questions answered. ► Thank you to the students who signed up for Pearson website access! 1. At this point in the story, who do you think the protagonist? Antagonist? Explain your choices with evidence from the text. 2. Explain whether you agree or disagree with the following statements: ► One should be content with his/her life as it is. ► People should not play games with fate.
Tone vs. Mood ► Describe the tone and mood of The Monkey’s Paw. ► What is the difference between tone and mood? ► TONE is the attitude a writer or speaker takes toward the subject. ► MOOD is the atmosphere or feeling of a text.
Point of View ► When you determine who is telling the story, you have discovered the narrative point of view. ► This is important because the narrator controls just what and how much is told, the kind of information given to the reader, and even the shape of the work itself. ► The two major points of view are first- person and third-person.
First-Person Narrators ► First-person narrators are one of the characters in the story. ► They may be either a major or minor character. ► Whichever character tells the story, he or she has limited knowledge. ► Another concern with a first-person narrator is bias. Since the character/narrator tells the story from his or her own perspective, there may be distortion or omission. ► This raises the question of reliability. Can we trust what the narrator tells us?
First Person-Narration Continued… ► One of the strengths of the first-person point of view is a sense of directness. We get the information first hand, as if we were there when the events occurred. We may find the narrator addressing us (the readers) or we may find a dramatic context where we overhear what is said to another character. ► What difference is there between a major and minor character as narrator? The major characters may have prejudices or needs to justify their own actions to themselves which may distort what we're told. The minor characters observe the action without being an integral part of it, and they lack essential information. We may have to guess about what really happened or is happening.
Third-Person Narrators ► Third-person narrators are outsiders (i.e., not active participants in the story). ► As a result, our experience is less direct. ► The narrator may enter into the thoughts and feelings of various characters or may provide an objective reporting of the events.
Some variations on the third- person point of view: Omniscient (om-nish-ent): the narrator, along with knowing the events of the story, knows the thoughts and feelings of the other characters ► Limited: the narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one character. We may find an objective report of the events or we may learn of them from the viewpoint of one character. All other characters are seen from the outside only. ► Objective: the narrator simply reports what he or she observes, including conversations and descriptions of the scene.
Questions a reader should ask regarding the narrator : ► How much does the narrator really know? ► What prejudices or personal needs may affect the information we are given? ► Is the narrator reliable?
Direct and Indirect Characterization ► Direct characterization: the narrator or another character tells us what a person is like (Betty is timid). ► Indirect characterization: requires the reader to look for clues that reveal a character's traits and motivations. To fully understand a character and a story, we should look at a character’s: Speech Actions Thoughts Appearance What others say or think about the characters
Learn About a Character in Relation to a Story 1) determine the narrative point of view 2) get a sense of the events 3) decide who are the most fully developed characters. Then reread looking for the clues mentioned above. Why do characters do what they do? What are the motivations, attitudes, or personality traits which might explain their behavior?
Plot Diagram Exposition Rising Actions Climax Fallin g Actions Resolution Introduction – background info; Sets the stage for the story; Introduces characters, setting, & conflict Complications Grow Conflict & Tension Development of complications & problems leading to the climax; Suspense builds & plot “thickens” Turning point in the story; Most tension or suspense; Can be anywhere in the novel Actions following climax; Conflict starts to resolve Final outcome of the story
Conflicts in a Plot ► Conflict – struggle or problem ► 2 main kinds: External vs. Internal 1) External – a struggle outside of the character; against someone or something else 2) Internal – a struggle within a character’s mind or heart
Types of Conflict ► 4 types Person vs. Nature Self Society Person