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Sustainable Cities Chapter 22.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Cities Chapter 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Cities Chapter 22

2 urbanization

3 Basics Urbanization: shift from rural to urban living
Agriculture gave rise to sedentary societies Industrialization has driven the move to urban centers Urbanization has slowed in developed nations (most people already live in cities & suburbs Since 1950: urban pop. Has quadrupled

4 Basics Urban growth slower in developed countries
Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized; mostly in developing countries Most fast-growing cities are in developing countries Urban development depends on climate, topography, waterways

5 Basics Portland, OR, developed due to confluence of Columbia & Willamette Rivers Chicago was served by several major rail hubs allowing for grain trading center & slaughterhouses

6 sprawl

7 Sprawl Refers to the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center Spread is outward

8 Causes Population growth Per capita land consumption has increased
Government policies encouraged sprawl by via funding for interstate and other road-building projects

9 Downside Constrains transportation options Increases air pollution
Promotes physical inactivity More land use Drains tax dollars from existing communities Water problems

10 Fighting Sprawl Smart growth
Proponents want their communities to manage their growth in ways that maintain or improve quality of life Guiding the rate, placement, and style of development to serve environment, economy, and community

11 Principles of Smart Growth
Mixed land uses Compact building design Range of housing opportunities and choices Walkable neighborhoods Distinctive, attractive neighborhoods Preserve open space Develop existing communities A variety of transportation choices Predictable development decisions Community collaboration in development decisions



14 Livable cities

15 City and Regional Planning
Early standards for city planning were set by Daniel Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago City planning attempts to design cities to maximize efficiency, functionality, and beauty Regional planning has become important today

16 City and Regional Planning
Zoning is important Zoning is the practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use Urban Growth Boundaries aim to revitalize downtowns; protect farms, forests, and their industries; and assure urban dwellers some access to open space near cities

17 New Urbanism A school of thought that seeks to design neighborhoods on a walkable scale, with homes, businesses, schools, and other amenities all close together New urbanist neighborhoods are generally connected to public transit systems Smart growth counters sprawl by managing the rate, placement, and style of development through policy initiatives


19 Transportation Options
Improving the quality of urban life includes multiple transportation options available Mass transit options: cheaper, more energy efficient, and cleaner than automobiles, and also ease traffic congestion

20 Parks City parks were widely established at the turn of the last century Two sometimes conflicting goals motivated the establishment of early city parks a. They were pleasure grounds for the wealthy, b. They also alleviated congestion and allowed some escape for the poverty-stricken immigrants


22 Urban sustainability

23 Urban resource consumption brings a mix of environmental impacts
Resource sinks — cities and towns must import from widespread sources nearly everything they need to feed, clothe, and house their inhabitants. Cities also export wastes Efficiency — cities should be able to minimize per capita consumption by maximizing the efficiency of resource use and delivery of goods and services

24 Urban resource consumption brings a mix of environmental impacts
More consumption—the ecological footprints of cities are much greater than their actual land areas.

25 Urban resource consumption brings a mix of environmental impacts
Noise pollution = undesired ambient sound Degrades aesthetic surroundings Can induce stress and harm hearing Light pollution = lights obscure the night sky, impairing the visibility of stars



28 Sustainability for Cities
Cities promote a flourishing cultural life Urban ecology = cities can be viewed explicitly as ecosystems Fundamentals of ecology and systems apply to cities

29 Sustainable Cities Should…
Use resources efficiently Recycle Develop environmentally friendly technologies Account fully for external costs Offer tax incentives for sustainable practices Use locally produced resources Use organic waste and wastewater to restore soil fertility Encourage urban agriculture


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