2 Why do people move to cities PushPullLack of jobBoredomFew educational opportunities-Career Opportunities-Culture-Educational Opportunities
3 Urbanization Transformation of a society from a rural to an urban one. Urban population - Persons living in cities or towns of 2,500 or more residents.Urbanized area - One or more places and the adjacent densely populated surrounding area that together have a minimum population of 50,000.Mega-cities - Cities with 10 million residents or more.
4 UrbanizationWorld’s largest cities in 1900:World’s largest cities in 2015 (projected)Tokyo 28.7 millionLondon 6.4 millionNew York 4.2 millionBombay 27.4 millionParis 3.3 millionLagos 24.4 millionBerlin 2.4 millionShanghai 23.4 millionChicago 1.7 millionJakarta 21.2 million*In % of people in the world live in cities. In 2005, 50% live in cities
5 UrbanizationUrban dominance in the developed world became apparent in the first half of the 20th century.The second half of this century has seen tremendous growth in the cities of the developing world.Humanity has become a largely urban species and the trend strengthens with every passing year.
6 UrbanizationUrban growth rates are much faster than population growth rates as a whole.In developing countries the overall rate is 1.9%, but the urban growth rate for cities is around 3.5%.The World Resources Institute estimates that for every 1% increase in national population brings a 1.7% growth in urban population.
7 Negative Aspects of Urbanization Brainstorm1) Environmental Issues2)Urban SPRAWL:Land use for urban purposesDeforestation, loss of agric and habitat land for housing, shopping, entertainmentDependency on Cars; commutes to work3) Urban Waste- What to do with garbage
8 Suburbanization Suburbs, urban areas surrounding central cities As city residents left the city to live in the suburbs, cities experienced deconcentration, the redistribution of the population from cities to suburbs and surrounding areas.
9 Metropolitan GrowthA metropolitan area is a densely populated core area together with adjacent communities.The largest city in each metropolitan area is designated the central city.
10 Metropolitan Growth and Urban Sprawl The growth of metropolitan areas is often referred to as urban sprawl—the ever increasing outward growth of urban areas.Urban sprawl results in the loss of green open spaces, the displacement and endangerment of wildlife, traffic congestion and noise, and pollution liabilities.
11 Social Issues Ghettoization socio-economic classes lumped together in certain areas “Downtown East Side”Crime, poverty, lack of social services, decrease in property valueGentrification- socio-economic classes lumped together (wealthy peo. In desirable area with poor moving out)- Unequal access to services
12 UrbanizationIn the developing world city growth places tremendous pressure on urban infrastructure.Water and air quality are stressed.Open spaces are encroached upon.High rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime are an understandable outcome.
14 UrbanizationDespite the huge problems faced by the inhabitants of slums, shantytowns, barrios and favellas, there is still great optimism.Cities, with their size and complexity, offer a wide range of opportunities unavailable in rural economies.
18 Accessible CoresPublic transit, bike paths, HOV lanes ect
19 traffic-free zones reduce automobile use: – cycling paths, transit & walkways - diversity should limit separation of business, shops and homes - streets/squares become meeting places to relax
20 Planned GrowthCommunity gardens, parks, sport facilities
21 City Upgrades low rent housing on the margins of the city multiple use facilities and high rises - refurbish old buildings -developing vacant spaceyoung professionals replace old rundown areas with refurbished buildings
22 Green infrastructureRecycling program, waste treatment, sources of energy