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Macromolecules Organic Compounds

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Organic Compounds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Organic Compounds
Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules.

2 Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell.
Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). Usually with C, H, O or N. Example: CH4(methane)

3 Macromolecules Large organic molecules Also called POLYMERS
Made up of smaller “building blocks” called monomers 4 kinds 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

4 Carbohydrates simple sugar molecules assembled into large sugar molecules Examples: Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide

5 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: One sugar unit
Examples: glucose (C6H12O6) deoxyribose ribose Fructose Galactose glucose

6 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: Two sugar units Examples:
Sucrose (glucose+fructose) Lactose (glucose+galactose) Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucose

7 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units
Examples: starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) glucose cellulose

8 Lipids Compounds which are NOT soluble in water
Building blocks are fatty acids Main function is energy storage Examples Fats (butter, lard, crisco) Phospholipids (cell membrane) Oils (olive oil, vegetable oil, peanut oil) Waxes Steroids

9 Lipids Main functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage
Need To Know!!! Lipids Main functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage --can be broken down for energy 2. Provide insulation 3. Forms protective coatings --waxes (plant surfaces, duck feathers, beaver fur) 4. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

10 Proteins Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds
Also known as polypeptides Only 20 AA and the order/way they are put together determine the protein Building Blocks are amino acids Functions of proteins: Structure for tissues and organs Enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) Cellular Metabolism Form hair, muscles, nails, horns, hooves, etc!! Need To Know!!!

11 Nucleic Acids Building Blocks are nucleotides Two types
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA-double helix Ribonucleic acid RNA-single strand Stores all genetic info, instructions for making proteins, main energy molecule for cells (ATP)

12 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides are made of phosphate sugar nitrogen base
adenine (A) thymine (T) uracil (U) cytosine (C) guanine (G)

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