13 Lipids General term for compounds which are not soluble in water. Lipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents.Hydrophilic – water-lovingHydrophobic – water-fearingRemember: “stores the most energy”Examples: 1. Fats2. Phospholipids3. Oils4. Waxes5. Steroid hormones6. Triglycerides
14 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage 2. Protection against heat loss (insulation)3. Protection against physical shock4. Protection against water loss5. Chemical messengers (hormones)6. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
15 LipidsTriglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids. (Looks like a letter “E”)HH-C----OglycerolOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=OC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=fatty acidsOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=
16 Fatty AcidsThere are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels:1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad)2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good)OC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=saturatedOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3=unsaturated
21 Nucleic acids Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand)Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis.
22 Nucleic acids Nucleotides include: phosphate group pentose sugar (5-carbon)nitrogenous bases:adenine (A)thymine (T) DNA onlyuracil (U) RNA onlycytosine (C)guanine (G)
23 Nucleotide – DRAW the structure below. O=P-OPhosphateGroupNNitrogenous base(A, G, C, or T)CH2OC1C4C3C25Sugar(deoxyribose)