2 Rhetorical AppealsAristotle divided rhetorical appeals into three main categories:Ethos: Ethical appeals. Attempts to persuade by establishing the speaker as credible and trustworthy.Pathos: Emotional appeals. Attempts to persuade by appealing to the emotions, both positive and negative.Logos: Logical appeals. Attempts to persuade by using facts, claims, and statistics.
3 Assertion Very common in advertising A statement, not always true, stated in an enthusiastic or energetic way and presented as fact.It is often implied that the assertion should be accepted without questions.This can be a very dangerous form of propaganda, because it often spreads falsehoods and liesExamples in advertising: Stating that a product is the “best” without giving proof or evidence.Example in Animal Farm: Squealer often claims that Napoleon is the best leader, or that Snowball is attacking the farm, without giving any real proof. Squealer also manipulates facts and figures and supplies “scientific proof” that production figures are up.
4 Glittering Generalties Common in political propagandaUses words that are “linked to highly valued concepts”. When used, they garner approval without the person even thinking.Words like “honor”, “glory”, and “freedom” are commonly used.Squealer will often use such terms when discussing the work the animals are doing.
5 Lesser of two evilsTries to convince people to accept an option because it is better than the alternative.Often used during wartime to get people to make sacrifices and work harder.Often sets blame on a common enemyIn Animal Farm Squealer constantly plays on the fear of Jones returning, and sets the animal’s hatred and dissatisfaction against him and Snowball, making Napoleon look like their savior
6 Pinpointing the EnemySimplifies a situation by pinpointing one specific enemy, or scapegoatIn Animal Farm, Snowball and Jones are used as a common enemy
7 Plain FolksTries to make it sound like the propagandist is working for and with the common person.Often used in conjunction with glittering generalities.In Animal Farm, Squealer often says that Napoleon and the pigs take on the “business and brains” of the farm so the other animals don’t have to worry about such tasks.
8 Testimonials Testimonials use a spokesperson to endorse a product. Often used in advertising when celebrities or athletes endorse certain products.In Animal Farm, Boxer is often used as a spokesperson for hard work.