2 Name callingUses words with intense negative emotional appeal to make readers condemn a product or idea without examining the evidence.
3 NAME CALLING:When Squealer/Napoleon calls Snowball a 'traitor', and 'criminal‘
4 Glittering generalities A word or phrase with positive connotations used to create good feelings about a product or opinion, regardless of any evidence. Example: A brand uses the words natural or organic to appeal to people who want healthy, ecologically sound products.
5 GLITTERING GENERALITIES: Minimus's song for Napoleon/the positives on the farm are all credited to Napoleon
6 EuphemismThe substitution of a less offensive word for one that may offend.
7 Squealer calls it a 'readjustment' of food instead of a 'reduction euphemismSquealer calls it a 'readjustment' of food instead of a 'reduction
8 TRANSFERAn attempt to connect a product, image, or idea with something respected, pleasing, or admired – even though that connection may not be logical. A TV star who played a trustworthy family man for many years describes a building company. A company or cause identifies itself with a beloved political figure of the past.
9 TRANSFERSquealer tells the animals to adopt Boxer's mottos after he died.
10 CARD STACKINGProviding only those facts that support the case or product, hoping that the audience will not notice the facts that have been left out. Example: The debate boils down to just one inescapable fact: The adoption of school uniforms would deny teens their personal freedom.
11 CARD STACKINGSquealer lies to the animals about how much food the farm has (when in reality the farm has very little food)
12 TESTIMONIALA personal recommendation for a product or idea often offered by an expert or famous person who may not use or like the product or idea.
13 After Napoleon's purges, Boxer tells all the animals to work harder. TESTIMONIALAfter Napoleon's purges, Boxer tells all the animals to work harder.
14 PLAIN FOLKSPromotes a product or service because it is effective and sensible rather than popular -the sort of thing plain folks (regular folks like you ) use or buy.
15 PLAIN FOLKSThe pigs working alongside the other animals/'Comrade'