Presentation on theme: "Human Learning Lisa Holmes. Learning Theory A learning theory is a concept that describes how learning occurs. It takes into consideration how the information."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Theory A learning theory is a concept that describes how learning occurs. It takes into consideration how the information presented is “absorbed, processed, and retained,” all of which are determined by both internal and external influences. These influences can include environmental, personal experience, emotional state and mental abilities. Different learning theories offer different explanations of what happens during the learning process.
Learning Theory Categories Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism
Learning Styles Definition of Learning Styles: A learning style is a preferred mode of learning such as auditory, visual or kinesthetic. Different students have different preferred modes of learning, or learning styles. Controversy Regarding Learning Styles: The concept of learning style is controversial because, oftentimes, the focus on learning styles does not take into consideration other factors of learning such as ability, background knowledge and interest. Also, evidence shows that learning style is a student preference, not necessarily the only way the student can learn the material. In addition, not all learning styles are appropriate for all content so presenting materials in a student’s preferred style for all content is not necessarily helpful to the student.
Learning Styles and Instructional Design Although learning styles may only be an individual’s preference and not necessary to consider when instructing, instructional designers should consider these styles when deciding the best way to present specific content. Instructional designers should design components in a style that fits the content while also focusing on the abilities, background knowledge and interests of the learners.
Motivation Motivation is as “the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.” It is what drives people to take some sort of action, big or small, and to see that action through to the end goal.
ARCS Model of Motivation An instructional designer can incorporate the ARCS motivation model in several ways; the following offers a few examples of how to incorporate each of the four steps in the model. To get the attention of the student the designer can offer different ways to keep students interested and involved, for example, by incorporating group discussions, problem solving and even humor. Designers can help demonstrate content relevance by linking the material to real-life experiences and explaining its usefulness. Designers can help with confidence by providing up front expectations and including communication tools for support. Designers can help the students with their level of satisfaction by incorporating mechanisms that allow instructors to offer rewards and positive feedback.
Remember – Include exercises and/or assessments that require a student to recall material such as matching terms to their definitions. Understand – Include questions that require students to explain a concept in their own words. Apply – Include assignments that require students to demonstrate what they have learned. Analyze – Include questions that require students to compare and contrast two separate concepts. Evaluate – Include questions that require students to explain how they would apply a concept and have them justify their answer. Create – Include a final presentation component that requires the student to design a slideshow that demonstrates all of the different concepts learned and how they relate to one another.
Conclusion Understanding learning theory is important for an instructional designer so that he or she is aware of how learning occurs. It provides foundational knowledge in order to create an effective design. Although learning styles may only be a preference of how individuals want to learn, instructional designers should keep learning styles in mind when deciding which style best suits the content being delivered. Instructional design is more effective if it includes ways to keep the students motivated. Designers should consider ways to keep students interested and involved, explain content relevance, build student’s confidence and ensure student satisfaction. Instructional designers should incorporate the different levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy to create appropriate objectives and tasks in order to promote different levels of thinking skills.