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Communication & Educational Models. Communication n Process of sending and receiving messages n Transmission requires a mutual understanding between communicator.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication & Educational Models. Communication n Process of sending and receiving messages n Transmission requires a mutual understanding between communicator."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication & Educational Models

2 Communication n Process of sending and receiving messages n Transmission requires a mutual understanding between communicator and listener.

3 Education n systematic instruction, schooling or training

4 Learning n Change in an individual as a result of experience n Changes may be in: n knowledge n skills n attitudes n values n behaviors

5 Counseling n Process that assists people in learning n Involves problem solving, identifying goals, and change n Happens within a helping relationship

6 Communication Components n Sender n Receivers n Message - verbal and non-verbal n Feedback - responding after interpretation n Interference - physical and psychological interference

7 Goals for Successful Communication n Descriptive not evaluative n Provisional not dogmatic n Egalitarian not superior

8 Challenges to Communication n Selective perception - we hear what we want to hear n Meanings are more people (non-verbal communication) than words n Failure to listen

9 Active Listening or “How to talk so your kids will listen and listen so your kids will talk” n Listen quietly and attentively n Acknowledge with a word n Paraphrase/give feelings a name n Ask clarifying questions - but not too many n Show respect for the struggle - don’t rush in with answers n Look for opportunities to show the child a new picture of himself

10 What Makes Learners Learn? n Emphasis on the learner, not the teacher n Achievable objectives based on: n domains of learning n specified levels of learning

11 Learning Domains (Taxonomy of learning objectives, Bloom et al.) n Cognitive - the skill to do something n Affective - the choice to do something n Psychomotor - the physical ability to do something, manual skills

12 Levels of Cognitive Learning 1. Knowledge - rote recall of facts 2. Comprehension - can explain or describe 3. Application - ability to use rules 4. Critical thinking - ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate, select rules to use

13 Levels of Affective Learning n Receiving n Responding n Valuing n Organization of Values n Characterization by a Value

14 Planning Learning n Assess needs n Establish measurable objectives n Determine content n Select appropriate methods, techniques, and materials n Implement learning experiences n Evaluation

15 Cognitive Objectives: Knowledge n define n describe n identify n match n list n name n state n select n label n recall n outline n recite n reproduce n cite n memorize

16 Cognitive Objectives: Comprehension n defend n convert n discuss n estimate n explain n generalize n give examples n paraphrase n predict n select n summarize

17 Cognitive Objectives: Application n Apply n assemble n calculate n compute n demonstrate n design n manipulate n modify n Operate n plan n practice n prepare n produce n show n solve n use

18 Cognitive Objectives: Critical Thinking n analyze n illustrate n interpret n relate n design n explain n recommend n generate n assess n appraise n compare n conclude n contrast n criticize n evaluate n justify

19 Affective Objectives: Receiving n asks n attends n chooses n follows n gives n replies n selects n uses n describes

20 Affective Objectives: Responding n answers n assist n complies n conforms n cooperates n discusses n helps n participates n Performs n practices n presents n reads n recites n reports n responds n tells

21 Affective Objectives: Valuing n Completes n describes n differentiates n explains n follows n imitates n joins n justifies n Proposes n selects n shares

22 Affective Objectives: Organization of Values n Accepts n adheres n alters n arranges n combines n compares n defends n discusses n Explains n generalizes n integrates n modifies n prefers n relates n synthesizes

23 Affective Objectives: Characterization by a Value n Acts n advocates n communicates n discriminates n displays n exemplifies n influences n listens n Practices n proposes n questions n selects n serves n supports n uses n verifies

24 Adult Learning n Self directed not dependent or childlike n Builds on experiences n Readiness to learn based on need n Oriented toward performing tasks and solving problems n Motivation is internal not external

25 People Remember……. n 10% of what they read n 20% of what they hear n 30% of what they see n 50% of what they both see and hear n 70% of what they say n 90% of what they both say and do

26 Teaching Methods

27 Lecture Strengths n Easy n Efficient n Conveys Information Weaknesses n Passive learning n Little higher level learning

28 Discussion Strengths n Active Participation n Remember what discuss n Good for higher level learning Weaknesses n limited by time and size of group n Learners may not participate n Learners may not be prepared

29 Projects Strengths n Active participation n Higher level learning Weaknesses n Learners need time for preparation n Group projects may be limited by group dynamics

30 Simulation Strengths n Higher level thinking n active participation n More interesting Weaknesses n Limited by time and group size n Preparation may be time consuming

31 Demonstration Strengths n Appeals to several senses n Can show to a large group n Good for psychomotor domain Weaknesses n Requires equipment n Requires prep time n Learner is often passive

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