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Planning, Instruction, and Technology

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Presentation on theme: "Planning, Instruction, and Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning, Instruction, and Technology
CHAPTER 12 Planning, Instruction, and Technology

2 Learning Goals Explain what is involved in classroom planning.
Identify important forms of teacher-centered instruction. Discuss important forms of learner-centered instruction. Summarize how to effectively use technology to help children learn.

3 Planning, Instruction, and Technology
Instructional Planning Time Frames and Planning

4 Planning Instructional planning involves developing a systematic, organized strategy for planning lessons. Planning will give instructors confidence, guide content coverage, and help make good use of class time.

5 Time Frames of Teacher Planning

6 Planning, Instruction, and Technology
Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning and Instruction Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning Evaluating Teacher-Centered Instruction Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction

7 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning
Behavioral Objectives What will students do? How will behavior be assessed? What level of performance will be acceptable?

8 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning
Instructional Taxonomies Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain

9 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning

10 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning

11 Teacher-Centered Lesson Planning

12 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction
High teacher direction and control High teacher expectations of students’ progress Maximization of time on academic tasks

13 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Orienting/Lecturing
In lectures, effective teachers . . . Establish a framework and ORIENT students to new material using advance organizers. Take the time to EXPLAIN and DEMONSTRATE new material.

14 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Questions and Discussion
Use fact-based questions before thinking-based questions Avoid yes/no and leading questions Give students time to think Ask clear, purposeful, brief, and sequenced questions Monitor your response to students’ answers Pose questions to whole class or individual students appropriately Encourage students to ask questions

15 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Questions and Discussion
Respond to each student’s learning needs while maintaining group’s interest. Allow students to contribute while maintaining focus on the lesson. Encourage overall classroom participation while retaining class enthusiasm.

16 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Mastery Learning
Specify the task Design learning units based on instructional objectives Plan instruction to include corrective feedback Evaluate mastery level at the end of the unit/course

17 Enter the Debate Should teachers assign homework to elementary students? YES NO During a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.

18 Planning, Instruction, and Technology
Learner-Centered Lesson Planning and Instruction Learner-Centered Principles Evaluating Learner- Centered Strategies Some Learner-Centered Instructional Strategies

19 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors
Nature of the learning process: The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience. Goals of the learning process: The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge. Construction of knowledge: The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.

20 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors
Strategic thinking: The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals. Thinking about thinking: Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking. Context of learning: Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices.

21 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Motivational and Affective Factors
Motivational and emotional influences on learning: What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests, and goals, and habits of thinking. Intrinsic motivation to learn: The learner’s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and control.

22 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Motivational and Affective Factors
Effects of motivation on effort: Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learners’ motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion.

23 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Developmental and Social Factors
Developmental influence on learning: As individuals develop, they encounter different opportunities and experience different constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account. Social influences on learning: Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others.

24 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Individual Differences Factors
Individual differences in learning: Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity. Learning and diversity: Learning is most effective when differences in learners’ linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account. Standards and assessment: Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner and learning progress - including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment - are integral parts of the learning process.

25 Learner-Centered Instructional Strategies
Students identify real-life problems, locate materials, and address the issues; teacher guides student problem-solving Problem-Based Learning Essential Questions Questions that reflect the most important things that students should learn Students construct an understanding of their own; teachers provide stimulating activities Discovery Learning

26 Planning, Instruction, and Technology
Technology and Education The Technology Revolution and the Internet Teaching, Learning, and Technology Standards for Technology-Literate Students

27 Technology and Curriculum Planning
Learning Goal for Students – NETS*S Resource for Planning Instructional Tools Techniques Software

28 The Internet The Internet system is worldwide and connects thousands of computer networks, providing an incredible array of information that students can access. World Wide Web: A hypermedia information retrieval system that links a variety of Internet materials Website: An individual’s location on the Internet Electronic mail

29 Standards for Technology-Literate Students – NETS*S
Creativity and innovation Communication and collaboration Research and information fluency Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making Digital citizenship Technology operations and concepts

30 Teaching, Learning, and Technology
Evaluate which topics are worth understanding Think about what students should understand about a topic Pay attention to how students develop and demonstrate understanding Consider how students and teachers assess learning Reflect on how students and teachers can learn together

31 Crack the Case The Big Debate
What are the issues in this case? Where should Mrs. Rumer go from here? How can she take a curriculum that has been taught in a teacher-centered manner and convert it to a learner-centered curriculum? Should she? Why or why not? How can she incorporate technology into the curriculum so that the computers don’t become mere electronic flash cards? This case is on page 453 of the text.

32 Reflection & Observation
In your educational experiences, how have teachers used technology? How has it affected your learning? Explain. This slide accompanies the video segment, Technology in the Classroom, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.

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