Presentation on theme: "Planning, Instruction, and Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Planning, Instruction, and Technology CHAPTER 12Planning, Instruction, and Technology
2 Learning Goals Explain what is involved in classroom planning. Identify important forms of teacher-centered instruction.Discuss important forms of learner-centered instruction.Summarize how to effectively use technology to help children learn.
3 Planning, Instruction, and Technology InstructionalPlanningTime Frames and Planning
4 PlanningInstructional planning involves developing a systematic, organized strategy for planning lessons. Planning will give instructors confidence, guide content coverage, and help make good use of class time.
12 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction High teacher direction and controlHigh teacher expectations of students’ progressMaximization of time onacademic tasks
13 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Orienting/Lecturing In lectures, effective teachers . . .Establish a framework and ORIENT students to new material using advance organizers.Take the time to EXPLAIN andDEMONSTRATE new material.
14 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Questions and Discussion Use fact-based questions before thinking-based questionsAvoid yes/no and leading questionsGive students time to thinkAsk clear, purposeful, brief, and sequenced questionsMonitor your response to students’ answersPose questions to whole class or individual students appropriatelyEncourage students to ask questions
15 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Questions and Discussion Respond to each student’s learning needs while maintaining group’s interest.Allow students to contribute whilemaintaining focus on the lesson.Encourage overall classroom participation while retaining class enthusiasm.
16 Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies Mastery Learning Specify the taskDesign learning units based on instructional objectivesPlan instruction to include corrective feedbackEvaluate mastery level at the end of the unit/course
17 Enter the DebateShould teachers assign homework to elementary students?YESNODuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
18 Planning, Instruction, and Technology Learner-Centered Lesson Planning and InstructionLearner-CenteredPrinciplesEvaluating Learner-Centered StrategiesSome Learner-CenteredInstructional Strategies
19 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors Nature of the learning process: The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience.Goals of the learning process: The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.Construction of knowledge: The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.
20 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors Strategic thinking: The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals.Thinking about thinking: Higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking.Context of learning: Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices.
21 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Motivational and Affective Factors Motivational and emotional influences on learning: What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional states, beliefs, interests, and goals, and habits of thinking.Intrinsic motivation to learn: The learner’s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and control.
22 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Motivational and Affective Factors Effects of motivation on effort: Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learners’ motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion.
23 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Developmental and Social Factors Developmental influence on learning: As individuals develop, they encounter different opportunities and experience different constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account.Social influences on learning: Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with others.
24 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Individual Differences Factors Individual differences in learning: Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity.Learning and diversity: Learning is most effective when differences in learners’ linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account.Standards and assessment: Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner and learning progress - including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment - are integral parts of the learning process.
25 Learner-Centered Instructional Strategies Students identifyreal-life problems,locate materials,and address theissues; teacher guides student problem-solvingProblem-BasedLearningEssentialQuestionsQuestions that reflect the most important things that students should learnStudents construct an understanding of their own;teachers providestimulatingactivitiesDiscoveryLearning
26 Planning, Instruction, and Technology Technology and EducationThe Technology Revolution and the InternetTeaching, Learning, and TechnologyStandards for Technology-Literate Students
27 Technology and Curriculum Planning Learning Goal for Students – NETS*SResource for PlanningInstructional ToolsTechniquesSoftware
28 The InternetThe Internet system is worldwide and connects thousands of computer networks, providing an incredible array of information that students can access.World Wide Web: A hypermedia information retrieval system that links a variety of Internet materialsWebsite: An individual’s location on the InternetElectronic mail
29 Standards for Technology-Literate Students – NETS*S Creativity and innovationCommunication and collaborationResearch and information fluencyCritical thinking, problem solving, and decision makingDigital citizenshipTechnology operations and concepts
30 Teaching, Learning, and Technology Evaluate which topics are worth understandingThink about what students should understand about a topicPay attention to how students develop and demonstrate understandingConsider how students and teachers assess learningReflect on how students and teachers can learn together
31 Crack the Case The Big Debate What are the issues in this case?Where should Mrs. Rumer go from here?How can she take a curriculum that has been taught in a teacher-centered manner and convert it to a learner-centered curriculum? Should she? Why or why not?How can she incorporate technology into the curriculum so that the computers don’t become mere electronic flash cards?This case is on page 453 of the text.
32 Reflection & Observation In your educational experiences, how have teachers used technology?How has it affected your learning? Explain.This slide accompanies the video segment, Technology in the Classroom, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.