2 The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning.
3 We do this by: Identifying student strengths & learning needs Providing data for instructional decisionsMonitoring student progress & performanceMonitoring program effectiveness; andConnecting all areas later for evaluation & reporting purposes
4 If assessment does not result in improved teaching, then its value in school diminishes greatly. Assessment allows us to see the results of our teaching and allows us to make valid judgements about students.I. Fountas &G.S. PinnellGuided Reading; Good First Teaching for All p. 73The connection between assessment & instruction is criticalDeveloping a plan is necessary to ensure data is timely, reliable & helpful in informing practiceOur goal as we assess students is to:- find out what they can do- support their next steps- move them forward to more complex understanding
5 Four Phases of Assessment Assessment is a cyclical process that begins with the end in mind!At the centre of the process is the student as a reminder that the purpose of planning is improved student learning.
7 Phase 1: Unpacking the Curriculum TeacherChildWhat are my students expected to learn and be able to do?What will I be learning?This foundational knowledge gives us the background to determine what type of assessment information we will need to gather in order to monitor student learning & adapt instruction.
8 Phase 2:Gathering the Evidence TeacherChildHow will I know my students are learning?How will I know what I am learning?This phase focuses on the purposeful and planned collection of evidence of student learning using a range of assessment tools and strategies. See p of a Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading: K-3, 2003 for a graphic of various tools and strategies.
9 Phase 3:Teaching for Learning TeacherStudentHow will I help my students learn and respond if they are not learning?How will I learn and what help will I need?Phase focuses on how we are using the data to support student learning. Data is analyzed to make decisions regarding instructional resources to use, instructional groupings and both long and short term learning goals fro students. This drives your programming.
10 Phase 4:On-going Assessment, Evaluation & Reporting TeacherChildHow will I determine the level of my student's learning and report on it?How will I know how well I did?Phase reminds us that this is an on-going process that must be planned for in order to continually monitor student learning & adjust instruction. We must use professional judgement to evaluate achievement in relationship to particular internal/external criteria. The final piece in this phase is reporting.
11 ReportingReporting is the opportunity for us to document a student’s achievement to that point in time, in relationship to the specific learning covered during the reporting period.The report card allows the teacher to describe the highest, most consistent, most recent demonstrations of student learning.
12 Principles of Assessment Given all the abovehe principles of assessment have been established to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable and lead to an improvement in student learning.
13 Principle #1Assessment and evaluation strategies should address both what students learn and how well they learn.
14 Content StandardsCurriculum ExpectationsWhat students learnSubject and grade specificPromote consistency across the provincePerformance StandardsAchievement ChartsHow well students learnHigh standards for all studentsPromote consistency across the province
15 Principle # 2Assessment and evaluation strategies should be appropriate for the learning activities used, the purpose of instruction and the needs and experiences of students.
16 Classroom Assessments Closely tied to expectationsClosely tied to learning activitiesConsider students’ prior learningConsider students’ needsReflect students’ backgrounds
17 Principle #3Assessment and evaluation strategies should be communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning and throughout the year.
18 Communication Report Cards Informal reports Individual Education Plan (IEP)Teacher/student conferencesTeacher/parent conferencesTeacher/parent/student conferences
19 Principle #4Assessment and evaluation strategies should be fair to all students.
20 Achieving FairnessProvide choice within the assessment (e.g., topic to research)Provide choice in the mode of response (e.g., oral report instead of a written report)Negotiate time linesMake purposes and expectations clear
21 Principle #5Assessment and evaluation strategies should be varied in nature, administered over a period of time and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning.
22 Numerous and Varied Opportunities to Demonstrate Achievement ProjectsQuizzesExamsInterviewsWritten ReportsOral ReportsObservationsOral QuestioningPortfoliosMulti-media PresentationsPerformance TasksAssignments
23 Assessment Strategies QuizTestQuestionEssayClass DiscussionConferencePoemDramatic PresentationScience ExperimentResearch PaperArts PerformanceSee the Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner for more strategies.
25 Assessment Methods Paper and Pencil Performance Tasks Personal Communication
26 Principle #6Assessment and evaluation strategies must be based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions for each discipline.
27 Categories of Knowledge and Skills Knowledge/UnderstandingThinking/Inquiry/Problem SolvingCommunicationApplication
28 Achievement Charts: Performance Standards broad in scope and general in naturedescribe performance for four levels of achievement for all the categories of knowledge and skillsprovide a common reference for teachers as they design assessments and evaluate students’ workused to provide criteria and feedback to students and parents
29 Achievement Levels Level Definition Letter Grade Percentage Mark Student has demonstrated Athe required knowledge & Askills. Achievement exceeds AProvincial standard.Student has demonstrated Brequired knowledge & skills BAchievement meets Provincial BStandard.
30 Achievement Levels Level Definition Letter Grade Percentage Mark Student has demonstrated Csome of the required CKnowledge & skills CAchievement approachesProvincial standard.Student has demonstrated Brequired knowledge & skills Bin limited ways. Achievement Bfalls much below ProvincialStandard.R Student has not demonstrated R Below 50required knowledge & skills. Extensiveremediation is required.
31 Level 3: Provincial Standard Teachers and parents can be confident that students who are achieving at Level 3 are well prepared for work in the next grade.
32 Resources Exemplars: Writing Reading Mathematics Social Studies Science and TechnologyVisual ArtsHealth and Physical Education
33 Exemplars Based on performance task Linked to the curriculum expectationsStandard process for administering the taskRubric (based on Achievement Chart)Examples of student work for four levelsTeachers’ notes and comments
34 Performance TasksPresent engaging “real world”, meaningful, substantive issues or problems.Are directly related to curriculum expectations.Focus on what students can do and how they apply and extend their knowledge.Emphasize the processes students use, rather than only focus on the “right” answer.Present students with complex, loosely structured problems that allow for a wide range of products.
35 Principle #7Assessment and evaluation strategies should include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement.
36 Samples of Student Work show progress through the yearcan be compared to ministry exemplars for evaluationcan be used when conferencing with studentscan be used when communicating with parentscan be placed in a portfolio
37 Principle #8Assessment and evaluation strategies should ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement.
38 Directions for Improvement Achievement ChartsFour categories of knowledge and skillsExemplars and Task Specific RubricsReport CardsStrengths, weaknesses, next steps
39 Principle #9Assessment and evaluation strategies must promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals.
40 Self-Assessment and Goal Setting Report Card – Response FormDaily activities and journalsAgendasPortfoliosTeacher-parent-student conferencesStudent-led conferences
41 Principle #10Assessment and evaluation strategies should accommodate the needs of exceptional students, consistent with the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plans (IEP).
42 Principle #11Assessment and evaluation strategies should accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction.
43 Assessment Accommodations Additional timeOral test instead of written testSimplify tasks and/or materialsSpecialized equipmentAssistance of professional or paraprofessional staff