Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 An Era of Reform"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 18 An Era of Reform 18.1 Introduction*Between about 1820 and 1850,American reformers devotedthemselves to such causes asending slavery, promotingwomen’s rights, andimproving education.*As you will read in this chapter,women not only participated inthese movements, butemerged as powerful leaders.
2 18.2 The Spirit of Reform The Second Great Awakening *In the 1820’s and 1830’s, a revival ofreligious feeling sweeps across the nation.*Church leaders call this period theSecond Great Awakening.*People gather in churches and bigwhite tents to hear messages of hope.*The listeners pray, shout, and sing hymns.*Like the First Great Awakening during colonialdays, this religious revival fires people up.*Preachers tell their flocks that everyone cangain forgiveness for their sins by doing good works.*They say Christians can build “heaven on Earth.”*This optimistic message attracts enthusiasticfollowers throughout the West and North, and givespeople a reason to work for the improvement ofsociety and to actively oppose slavery.Methodist Camp Meeting
3 18.2 Continued… Optimistic Ideas 2nd Great Awakening18.2 Continued…H.D. ThoreauOptimistic Ideas*Ralph Waldo Emerson leads the transcendentalismmovement. Followers believe that every human being hasunlimited potential, but to reach that they have to transcend(go beyond) pure logical thinking and trust their emotions and intuition.*Transcendentalists urge people to question society’s rules and institutions.*One follower, Henry David Thoreau, captures this new feeling in his writingsthat encourage people to “march to the beat a different drummer.”Model Communities*Some transcendentalist reformers try to createperfect communities.*Residents of these communities try to live in“brotherly love” and share the labor of supportingthemselves by farming, teaching, and makingclothes.*While most of these communities last only a fewyears, they are a powerful expression of the beliefthat people of good will can create an ideal society.
4 Test Prep The Second Great Awakening was a: A) Period of new scientific thinking.B) Disease that caused sleeplessness.C) Campaign for public education.D) Religious revival movement.Answer: D) Religious revival movement.
5 Test Prep One effect of the Second Great Awakening was to: A) Increase prejudice against sinners.B) Encourage people to move west.C) Bring out the vote for Andrew Jackson.D) Inspire reformers to improve society.Answer: D) Inspire reformers to improve society.
6 18.3 Reforming the Treatment of Prisoners and the Mentally Ill Dorthea Dix*Debtors are put in prison, often for owing less than $20;children are put in prison for minor crimes, and manyinmates are bound in chains and locked in cages.The Plight of the Mentally Ill*Most people who are judged to be insane are lockedaway in dirty, crowded prison cells. They are whippedfor misbehavior.*Dorothea Dix from Massachusetts becomes a tirelesscrusader for prisoners and the treatment of the mentally ill.Campaigning for Better Conditions*For two years, Dix gathers information about the plight of the mentally ill, then sheprepares a detailed report for the Massachusetts state legislature.*Shocked by the report, law makers vote to create public asylums for the mentally ill.*Dix creates reports for other states, prompting those states to also create specialmental hospitals.*By the time she dies in 1887, most state governments no longer put debtors in prison,create special justice systems for children in trouble, and outlaw cruel punishment, suchas branding people with hot irons. She shows that with enough courage, reformers canlead society to make significant changes.
7 18.4 Improving Education *Horace Mann leads a second reform movement in the 1800’s to make education available tomore children.The Need for Public Schools*In the 1800’s few areas other thanMassachusetts have public schools.*Wealthy parents send their children to private schools or hire tutors.*On the frontier, children might attend a part-time, one-room school. Mostchildren simply do not go to school.*In cities, some poor children steal, destroy property, and set fires.*Reformers believe that education will help these children escape poverty andbecome good citizens.*New York sets up public elementary schools in every town as early as the1820’s.
8 18.4 Continued… *Meanwhile, in Massachusetts, Horace Mann Public Education18.4 Continued…*Meanwhile, in Massachusetts, Horace Mannbecomes the state’s supervisor of education.*In towns and villages, he speaks out on theneed for public education.*Citizens in Massachusetts respond by votingto pay taxes to build better schools, payteachers better salaries, and establish trainingschools for teachers.An Unfinished Reform*By 1850, many states in the North and West use Mann’s ideas.Soon, most white children, especially boys, attend public schools.*But America still does not offer education to everyone.*Most high schools and colleges do not admit girls.*States as far north as Illinois pass laws to keep African Americans out ofpublic schools.
9 Test Prep Which group benefited most from early efforts to establish public schools?A) African American boys.B) African American girls.C) European American boys.D) European American girls.Answer: C) European American boys.
10 18.4 Continued… *When towns do allow African Americans to attend school, most make them go toseparate schools that receive less money.*In the South, few girls and no AfricanAmericans can attend public schools.*Education for girls and women does makesome progress.*In 1837, Ohio’s Oberlin College becomesthe first college to admit women Oberlin students of the late 1850’s*African Americans have few options.*Prudence Crandall from Connecticut starts an all African American school. But enragedwhites throw stones at the school and jail Crandall. She is forced to close her schoolafter two years.*Horace Mann becomes the first president of Antioch College in Ohio and urges hisstudents to become involved in improving society.“Be ashamed to die,” he says, “until you have won some victory for humanity.”Prudence Crandall
11 Test Prep Before the reform movement led by Horace Mann: A) Few women had the right to vote.B) Most children did not attend school.C) Debtors were often thrown in jail.D) Sinners did not expect to be forgiven.Answer: B) Most children did not attend school.
12 18.5 Fighting Slavery *By the 1830’s people called abolitionists are asking the question: How can America,the “land of the free,” still allow slavery?The Struggle Begins*In 1776, Quakers stop owning slaves.*By 1792, every state as far south as Virginiahas anti-slavery societies.*Once the slave trade ends in 1808, northernshipping communities have no more interest inslaves. Still, northern factory owners like thecheap cotton that the South provides.*Although slavery ends in the North in the 1800’s, many northerners still acceptsouthern slavery.
13 18.5 Continued… *Abolitionists want to end slavery. *Radicals try to inspire slaves to rise up in revolt.*Others want to find a peaceful way to end slavery.*Moderates want to give slaveholders time todevelop farming methods that don’t rely on slavelabor.*Blacks and whites work together and separately toend slavery.*In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison starts an abolitionistnewspaper, the Liberator.*Garrison demands the immediate freeing of all slaves.*Angry pro-slavery groups destroy Garrison’s printing press and burn hishouse.
14 Test Prep. Americans who became abolitionists wanted to end: A) Slavery.B) Discrimination against women.C) immigration.D) Imprisonment for debt.Answer: A) Slavery.
15 Test Prep Radicals in the abolition movement: A) Hoped to inspire slave revolts to end slavery.B) Favored the gradual ending of slavery.C) Sought a quick but peaceful end to slavery.D) Did not care about slavery in the South.Answer: A) Hoped to inspire slave revolts to end slavery.
16 18.5 Continued… Frederick Douglass Speaks Out *Frederick Douglass is an escaped slave.*He speaks to a meeting of abolitionistsabout the cruel treatment of slave children.*Douglass quickly becomes a leader in theabolitionist movement.*His autobiography (the story of his life)becomes an instant best-seller.*He starts his own paper, North Star.Frederick DouglassAbolitionist Movement
17 Test PrepWhat motto did Frederick Douglass choose for his abolitionistnewspaper, the North Star?A) “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory.”B) “I will be harsh as truth.”C) “Right is of no sex, truth is of no color.”D) “All men and women are created equal.”Answer: C) “Right is of no sex, truth is of no color.”
18 18.5 Continued… Grimke sisters Women Get Involved *Inspired by the religious reform movement,many women are inspired to become involvedin the fight against slavery.*Angelina and Sarah Grimke are raised in aSouth Carolina slave-holding family.*After moving North and becoming Quakers,they see slavery in a new way. Angelina and Sarah Grimke*The two sisters begin speaking out against slavery.*The Grimkes lead the way for other women to speak in public life.*Some abolitionists, like Sojourner Truth, are former slaves.*After meeting Douglass and Garrison, she is inspired to speak out againstslavery. A strongly spiritual person, Truth argues that God will end slaverypeacefully.*Abolitionists’ efforts help change northerners’ attitudes toward slavery.*the anti-slavery fight helps pave the way for the next great reform movement,the struggle for women’s rights.Grimke sisters
19 Test Prep Angelina and Sarah Grimke led the way for other women to: A) Gain admission to colleges.B) Work for the same pay as men.C) Vote and hold public office.D) Speak out in public on issues.Answer: D) Speak out in public on issues.
20 18.6 Equal Rights for Women The Struggle Begins *The organized movement for women’s rightsis sparked by the friendship between LucretiaMott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.*They meet at the 1840 World Anti-SlaveryConvention in London Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott*They are outraged to find out that women are not allowed to speak at themeeting.*Women are only allowed to sit in the balcony behind a curtain.*The two women decide that something has to be done about the injusticessuffered by women.
21 18.6 Continued… Unequal Treatment of Women *Some examples of unequal treatment:-Lucy Stone of Oberlin College is invited towrite a graduation speech but is not allowedto give it. Instead, a man delivers the speech.-Elizabeth Blackwell is rejected by 29 medicalschools before finally being accepted by one.She graduates at the top of her class, but nohospitals or doctors will work with her.*By the time Elizabeth Cady Stanton andLucretia Mott leave London, they decide tohold a convention and form a society toadvocate for the rights of women.
22 18.7 The Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of Sentiments *Eight years pass before Stanton and Mottdecide to send a notice to the local newspaperannouncing a convention in Seneca Falls, NewYork.The Declaration of Sentiments*July 19, 1848, around 300 abolitionists, Quakers,and reformers arrive for the convention.*The convention organizers model their proposalfor women’s rights, the Declaration of Sentiments,on the Declaration of Independence.*The new declaration lists acts of tyranny by menover women:-Women do not have the right to vote.-Women have no property rights, even to their own wages.-Women are not allowed to practice professions like medicine and law.*Stanton’s first speech at the convention is the Declaration of Sentiments.
23 18.7 Continued… Debate About the Right to Vote *Stanton proposes that womendemand the right to vote.*While some feel this step is toobig, Stanton receives powerfulsupport from Frederick Douglass.*Douglass argues that everyone whobelieves that black men should havethe right to vote must also favor giving black women, and all women, the rightto vote.*Inspired by Douglass’s speech, the convention approves this resolution.
24 18.7 Continued… Susan B. Anthony Sojourner Truth The Legacy of Seneca Falls*Helps create an organized campaign forwomen’s rights.*Sojourner Truth becomes an activecampaigner in the movement.*Another reformer, Susan B. Anthony,travels from town to town speaking for*Slowly, reformers for women’s rights make progress.*New York gives women control over their own property and wages.*Massachusetts and Indiana pass more liberal divorce laws.*Elizabeth Blackwell starts her own hospital, including a medical school to trainother female doctors.*Of all the women who sign the Declaration of Sentiments, only CharlotteWoodward will live long enough to legally vote for president.Sojourner TruthSusan B. Anthony
25 Test Prep The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments was modeled on the:A) Monroe Doctrine.B) Declaration of Independence.C) Bill of Rights.D) Missouri Compromise.Answer: B) Declaration of Independence.
26 18.8 Chapter Summary*Many reformers were inspired by the Second Great Awakening, which taughtChristians to perform good works in order to be saved.*Others were inspired by transcendentalists writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson andHenry David Thoreau.*Dorothea Dix pioneered the reform of prisons and the treatment of the mentally ill.*Horace Mann leads the movement to make education freely available to all.*Abolitionists braved violent opposition as they worked to end slavery.*The abolitionists campaign helped spark the struggle for women’s rights.*The Seneca Falls Convention was the start of the organized movement for women’srights.*These reform movements had their greatest effect in the North.*In the next chapter, you will learn about the growing differences between the North andthe South.