Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ch 18: An Era of Reform.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ch 18: An Era of Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 18: An Era of Reform

2 Second Great Awakening
Led by Charles Finney Preachers told people that everyone could go to heaven, and one way was to do good works Attracted large following in the West and North Inspired people to improve society Many started to actively oppose slavery

3 Second Great Awakening

4 Transcendentalism Philosophy that taught how people could ‘transcend’, or go beyond logical thinking to reach true understanding with the help of emotion and intuition Said people could find answers to life’s mysteries by trusting their emotions and intuition Told people to question society’s rules and institutions Practiced by men like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau

5 Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Thoreau

6 Model Communities Communities started to try to create a perfect society Examples: Brook Farm, Oneida, Amana Most only lasted a few years

7 Brook Farm Based in MA from 1841-1847
Every person paid equally and people could work the jobs they wanted to work Never financially stable Main building burned down and it never recovered

8 Oneida Community Based in NY, existed from 1848-1881
Oneida Silverware originated from this community

9 Amana Colonies Based in Iowa from 1855-1932
Completely self-sufficient—little outside contact with the outside world Famous today for its refrigerators, freezers, microwaves, etc.

10 Prisoners and Mentally Ill
During mid-1800s, many prisoners used to be bound in chains and locked in cages Children accused of minor thefts were jailed with adults Most in debtors’ prisons owed less than $20, but could not earn money to repay their debts, so they stayed in jail for years Mentally ill were locked away in dirty and crowded jail cells Misbehavior was dealt with through whipping

11 Example of how mentally ill were treated

12 Dorothea Dix Dorothea Dix gathered information and wrote a report for the MA state legislature As a result of her work, public asylums for the mentally ill were created Dix visited prisons in other states, helping bring about change in those states as well By the time Dix died, many more changes took place debtors were no longer put in prison Special justice systems for children in trouble Cruel punishments, such as branding people with hot irons, had been banned

13 Dorothea Dix

14 Education In the early 1800s, few children had access to school
In MA, Puritans had schools Wealthy send their children to private school or hired tutors On the frontier, 60 children could go to a one-room school, part-time In the cities, some poor children stole, destroyed property, and set fires Reformers thought education could help these children escape poverty and become good citizens

15 Horace Mann Mann grew up going to school only 10 weeks/year
Later became MA supervisor of education Spoke in support of public schools (schools funded by taxes) Citizens voted to pay taxes to build better schools, pay teachers better, and establish training schools for teachers By 1850, many states in the North and West used these ideas Most white children, esp. boys, attended free public schools

16 Horace Mann

17 Education for African Americans and Females
Though most white boys could go to public schools, girls and African Americans couldn’t Girls couldn’t go to high school/college 1837—Oberlin College became first college to admit men and women African Americans in the North had to go to separate, poorer schools In the South, few girls and no African Americans could go to school

18 Anti-Slavery Movements
Even during the Revolutionary War, some Americans opposed slavery When slave trade ended, interest in slavery began dying down in the North Abolitionists (those who wanted to end slavery) had different ideas on ending slavery Some wanted the slaves to revolt Others wanted to end it peacefully Still others wanted to give slaveholders time to develop farming methods that didn’t require slaves

19 Abolitionists Blacks and whites worked in the abolition movement
William Lloyd Garrison started the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper Frederick Douglass, former slave, became a leader in the abolitionist movement—started a newspaper, North Star Angelina and Sarah Grimke were abolitionists who grew up in a slaveholding family in S.C. Sojourner Truth, former slave, was an outstanding speaker

20 The Liberator

21 Me with Frederick Douglass’s Statue in Baltimore

22 Sojourner Truth

23 Women and Their Lack of Rights
Women had few rights in the 1800s: could not vote or hold office could not speak at conventions, give speeches in public Could not control their money or property Could not divorce their husbands easily (if they were being beat by them) Could not practice certain professions, like medicine or law

24 Seneca Falls Organized movement for women’s rights began in 1848
Seneca Falls Convention was where women met and gave the Declaration of Sentiments (based on Declaration of Independence) Attended by women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Blackwell Passed resolutions attempting to correct the injustices, including the right to vote

25 Seneca Falls

26 Effects of Seneca Falls
New York gave women control over their property and wages Massachusetts and Indiana passed more liberal divorce laws Elizabeth Blackwell started her own hospital

Download ppt "Ch 18: An Era of Reform."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google