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Properties of Matter Chapter 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Properties of Matter Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Properties of Matter Chapter 16

2 Properties Extensive = Characteristic of matter in which the amount of the material affects the property Intensive = Characteristic of matter in which the amount of the material does not affect the property

3 List examples of extensive and intensive properties

4 Measuring Matter Length Meter (m) Volume Mass Temperature density
Measurement Unit instrument Length Meter (m) Meter stick, ruler, odometer Volume Liter (l) or cubic meter cm3 Ruler or graduated cylinder Mass Gram (g) or kilogram (kg) Scale or balance Temperature Celsius (C0) or Kelvin (K) Thermometer density g/cm3 or g/ml Balance and ruler or graduated cylinder

5 Classifying Matter: matter can be classified into two main types
Mixture contains more than one kind of matter that can be separated by physical means Pure Substances is matter that cannot be separated by physical means sugar Trail mix

6 Two Types of substances
Elements has one kind type of atom examples: helium (He) carbon (C) hydrogen (H) oxygen (O) Compounds a substance that contains more than one type of atom examples: H2O (pure water) NaCl (sodium chloride)

7 Matter Examples of elements: mercury gold aluminum iodine


9 Examples of pure substances that are compounds
NaCl = table salt Water =H2O Sugar = C6H12O6

10 Basic units of substances are always in motion
Atom is the smallest possible particle of an element Molecule is the smallest particle of the compound that retains the properties of the compound

11 Types of mixtures Heterogeneous mixture
the composition is not uniform (different) examples: chicken noodle soup mixed nuts soil Homogeneous Mixture The composition is uniform (same) examples: salt water tap water brass

12 What type of mixture is it?
homogeneous heterogeneous Salt water

13 Solutions, Suspensions, and Colloids
It isn’t always easy to tell the difference between a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture. Based on the size of its largest particles, a mixture can be classified as a solution, a suspension, or a colloid.

14 Solutions When substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture, the mixture that forms is called a solution.

15 All mixtures can be separated.
Methods to separate mixtures 1. Sorting 2. Filtering 3. Heating 4. Cooling 5. distillation

16 Matter Substances mixtures Compounds elements Heterogeneous mixture
Homogeneous mixture elements

17 Two types of Properties of Matter
1. A physical property is any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance in the material. A chemical property can be observed only when the substances in a sample of matter are changing into different substances.

18 Physical Properties Viscosity= Resistance of a liquid to flowing
High viscosity

19 Physical Properties of matter
Conductivity = the ability of matter to transfer heat or electricity

20 Physical Properties Malleability is the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering. diamond Hardness is used to compare two materials. If a material can scratch another then it is harder.

21 Physical Properties Melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid (Water in the form of ice melts at 00C) Boiling Point is the temperature at which a substance boils. (water boils at 1000C)

22 Physical Properties of Matter
Density is the ratio of the mass to volume of a substance.

23 Chemical Properties A chemical property is any ability to produce a change in the composition of matter. Chemical properties can be observed only when the substance in a sample of matter are changing into different substances.

24 Observing Chemical Properties
Flammability is a material’s ability to burn in the presence of oxygen.

25 Observing chemical properties
The property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances is reactivity. Examples: Rusting Chemical reaction

26 Indentifying Chemical Change
Common types of evidence for a chemical change are 1. color 2. production of gas 3. formation of a precipitate 4. Thermal energy change

27 Identifying a chemical change

28 States of Matter Solid has a definite shape and definite volume
molecules vibrate slow but cannot switch places with other molecules

29 States of Matter Liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape
Molecules move faster and slip out of position

30 States of Matter Gas has no definite shape or volume
molecules move so fast that they bounce out of the liquid state and become a gas.

31 Temperature= the average energy of the molecules

32 Changing States of Matter
Melting point temperature at which it changed from solid to liquid Boiling point temperature at which it changes from a liquid to a gas

33 Changing state of matter
Evaporation fast-moving molecules in a liquid can escape to become a gas cooling because it take the energy (heat) away from the substance Condensation molecules in a gas slow down and change into a liquid

34 Changes in State of Matter
Sublimation when a solid changes directly from a solid to a gas

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