2 What is Chemistry?Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.Because all things are made up of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life.
3 Areas of Chemistry Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Biochemistry Analytical ChemistryPhysical Chemistry
4 The Scientific Method Making Observation (leads to a question) Developing a HypothesisExperiment (Test Hypothesis)Conclusion (Develop Theory or Scientific Law)Repeat experiment
5 Matter Matter: Anything that takes up space and has mass (inertia) Mass: The measure of the amount of matter that an object containsProperties of Matter: Describes the characteristics and behavior of matter, including the changes that matter undergoes
6 Matter The Macroscopic View of Matter Matter that is large enough to be seenThe Submicroscopic View of MatterSo small that you cannot see it, even with the most powerful microscopeThe Microscopic View of MatterSmall enough that a microscope is needed.
7 Extensive vs. Intensive An extensive property is a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample.Ex. Mass, volume, length, etc.An intensive property is a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.Ex. Color, Texture, density, etc.
8 Observations of matter Qualitative: made without measurementEx. Color, texture, shape, etc.Quantitative: made with measurementEx. Mass, volume, length, etc.
9 States of Matter SOLID LIQUID GAS Solid: a form of matter with definite shape and volumeLiquid: a form of matter with a indefinite shape, but a definite volumeGas: a form of matter with an indefinite shape and volumeSOLIDLIQUIDGASFreezingEvaporationMeltingSublimationCondensation
10 MixturesMixture: A combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed.Mixtures can be classified as heterogeneous or homogeneousHeterogeneous Mixtures: A mixture that has a composition that is different throughout.Ex. Cookie Dough ice creamHomogeneous Mixtures: A mixture that has a composition that is the same throughout.Ex. Lemonade (solutions)
11 AQUEOUS SUGAR SOLUTION SolutionsA solution is made up of a solute and asolventSolute: The substance being dissolvedSolvent: The substance doing the dissolvingWhen the solvent is water the solution is said to be ‘AQUEOUS” (an aqueous solution.)=+SOLUTESOLVENTSOLUTION=+SUGARWATERAQUEOUS SUGAR SOLUTION
12 Separating MixturesDifferences in Physical properties can be used to separate mixtures.Filtration: a process that separates a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous solution.Distillation: A liquid is boiled to produce a vapor which is then condensed into a liquid (used to separate a liquid from solids or to separate two liquids)
13 Elements vs. CompoundsElement: simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.Compound: substance that contains two or more elements chemically combinedCompounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, elements cannot.
14 SymbolsChemists use chemical symbols to represent elements, and chemical formulas to represent compoundsEx. Sodium = Na, Chlorine = ClEx. Sodium Chloride = NaCl
15 Matter MATTER MIXTURES PURE SUBSTANCES COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS PHYSICAL CHANGESHETEROGENEOUSMIXTURESHOMOGENEOUSMIXTURESCOMPOUNDSELEMENTSSALT, BAKING SODA,SUGAROXYGEN, GOLD,IRONDIRT, BLOOD, MILKSODA, GASOLINE,AIR
16 = = Density MASS DENSITY VOLUME DENSITY The amount of matter (mass) contained in a unit volume.Measured ingramsMASS=DENSITYVOLUMEMeasured inmillilitersMASS per VOLUME-OR-GRAMS PER MILLILITER=DENSITY
17 Chemical vs. Physical Changes Physical Property: a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s compositionEx. Solubility, melting point, boiling point, color, density, electrical conductivity, and physical state (solid, liquid, gas)During a physical change, the composition of matter always remains the same.Tearing, cutting, grindingChange of state: boil, freeze, melt, and condense
18 Chemical vs. Physical Changes Chemical Property: the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical change is called a chemical propertyEx. Flammable, corrosive, ability to rustDuring a chemical change, the composition of matter always changesEx.. burn, rot, rust, decompose, ferment, explode, corrodeA chemical change is also called a chemical reaction.Possible indicators of a chemical change include:a transfer of energya change in colorthe production of gasor the formation of a precipitate
19 Chemical Reactions and Energy the capacity to do workAll chemical changes involve some sort of energy change.Energy is either given off ….“EXOTHERMIC”Or….taken in…. “ENDOTHERMIC”
20 Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy The law of conservation of mass and energy states that both matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed in any processIT’S THE LAW!!!
21 Energy Energy is the capacity to do work or produce heat Kinetic Energy: Energy of MotionPotential Energy: Energy of Position (stored energy)