Presentation on theme: "Matter All matter has Mass and Volume."— Presentation transcript:
1 Matter All matter has Mass and Volume. Every sample of matter is either an element, a compound, or a mixture.
2 Element A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances bychemical means.
3 AtomsEach element is made of one kind of atom.Atoms are the smallest unit of an elementthat maintains the chemical properties ofthat element.
4 Symbols Short hand way of writing element names. First letter capital. All others are lower case.One, two or three letters.Print like in kindergarten.
5 Elements of the Human Body In order of amounts Oxygen about 66% of body.Carbon about 18%.Hydrogen about 10%.Potassium, calcium, sulfur,nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium 2% or less.
6 Molecule Smallest unit of substance that behaves like the substance. Examples H2O, O2
7 Compounds Substance made up of atoms of different elements. Each molecule of a compound contains 2 or more elements that are chemically combined.They combine in the same proportions.Example- NaCl, KOH
8 Compounds Have unique properties Have properties unlike elements that combine to make the compound.
9 Chemical FormulaShows how many atoms of each element make up the compoundThe number of atoms is written as a subscript after the element’s symbol.If only one atom, then no subscript.NO, NO ones.Numbers in front of compound show molecules.Example 3H2O
10 Pure Substances Pure substance- matter that has a fixed composition. Elements and compounds are pure substances.Pure substances can not be separated into parts.They are chemically combined and can not be physically separated.
11 Mixtures Combination of substances that are not chemically combined Can be separated into their partsClassified by how well they mix
12 Types of MixturesHomogeneous MixtureHeterogeneous Mixture
13 Homogeneous Mixture Components are evenly distributed Mixture is the same throughoutCan also be called a solution.Example- gasoline-100 liquidsGasoline is misicible.Miscible- able to be mixed.Immiscible-will not mixExample- oil and water
14 Heterogeneous Mixture Substances not evenly distributedSome are hard to recognize.Ex. Shirt- cotton and polyestersalad
15 Miscible and Immiscible Gasoline is miscible.Miscible- able to be mixed.Immiscible-will not mixExample- oil and waterGases can mix with liquids.Gas-liquid mixture-carbonated drinksgas in drink and air bubblesfoamegg whites
16 Properties of MatterPhysical propertiesChemical properties
17 Physical PropertiesCharacterists that can be observed without changing the identity of the substanceCan help identify substancesstate, colorCan be observed and measuredboiling point- the temp at which a liquid changesto a gasmelting point-the temp at which a solid changesto a liquidHelp determine uses-antifreeze, aluminum foilExample-strength, hardness, magnetism, ability toconduct heat or electricity, density
18 DensityD=m/vMeasure of how much matter is contained in a certain volume of a substanceUnits- example- g/cm3, g/ml, cg/mlWater has a density of 1g/cm3A cubic centimeter has the same volume as a milliliter.
19 Density, Mass, Weight Density is different from Mass. Mass and weight are different.D= mass/volumeMass- amount of substanceWeight- pull of gravity on a substance.
20 Chemical PropertiesDescribes how a substance changes into a new substance, by1. combining with other elements2. breaking apart into new substancesExample- 1. Flammability – ability to burn2. Nonflammability-does not burn3. Reactivity- capacity of asubstance to combine withanother substance( iron + O = rust)
21 Chemical and Physical Properties Are not alikeCan observe physical properties without changing the identity of the substanceCan observe chemical properties only in situations in which the identity of the substance changes
22 Changes in MatterPhysical Change-affects 1 or more physical properties of a substance without changing the identity of the substanceExample- cutting hair, melting popsicle, crushing a can, sugar dissolvingDo not change identity of substanceDuring physical change-energy is absorbed or released, arrangement of atoms is the same even if looks different
23 Chemical ChangesChemical change- happens when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances that have different properties.Examples- food digested, battery dies, oxygen breathed, fruit ripening
24 Chemical Changes Form new substances Interaction – the action or influence between thingsCan be detected-change in color, odor, fizzing, foaming,sound, heat, lightChemical changes can not be reversed byphysical changes.(bread baking, rust, milk turning sour)
25 Breaking Down Mixtures Mixtures can be separated by physical changes.Mixtures are not chemically combined.Breakdown by removing pieces, heat, distillation, centrifuge, evaporation
26 Breaking Down Compounds Breakdown through chemical changesheat, electric current, chemical changes