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How did Andrew Jackson’s election break with the politics of the past?

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Presentation on theme: "How did Andrew Jackson’s election break with the politics of the past?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How did Andrew Jackson’s election break with the politics of the past?
Age of Jackson How did Andrew Jackson’s election break with the politics of the past? What are the major domestic and political issues of the Jackson Era?

2 Election of 1824 -no winner of electoral college -John Q. Adams chosen over Jackson as President Clay pulls for Adams b/c he agreed to back American System -Called corrupt bargain because Jackson had won the popular vote! - Clay also given the position of Secretary of State as part of deal -Jackson’s supporters formed the Democratic Party and opposed Adams’ policies

3 Election of 1828 -high voter turnout b/c voting requirements had been lowered -previous voting laws had limited voting to property owning white males **New Voting Requirements = ALL white men age 21+ -Jackson appealed to the “Common Man” -Jackson becomes first western President (TN) -1832 Jackson re-elected - first use of national nominating conventions

4 Jackson’s Presidency -”Common Man”’s President -humble origins, “Old Hickory” - not well educated, war hero (War of 1812) -creation of the Spoils System: incoming officials fill positions with friends and supporters “kitchen cabinet”: Jackson’s friends who became his primary advisors – NOT his “official” cabinet -greater democracy, but women and minorities still ignored -Great Silence over the issue of slavery

5 -debate over high tariffs (North favors high tariff)
Nullification Crisis -debate over high tariffs (North favors high tariff) -Tariff of Abominations— 1828 placed high tariff on goods, British reduced import of cotton hurting the South -John C. Calhoun -theory of nullification: state right to void a law Calhoun’s “S.C. Exposition and Protest” -S.C. threatens secession STATES RIGHTS v. FEDERAL POWER -Jackson threatens the use of force -Henry Clay organizes a compromise Tariff question continues—in 1830 Hayne (South) & Webster (North) debate over tariffs & the underlying state v. federal power issue = one of the greatest debates in US History


7 Indian Policy -different views about Indian policy Majority of whites want the Indian land -Indian Removal Act, 1830 Jackson states assimilation can’t work, move Indians to their own territory in the west -Cherokee takes the issue to the Supreme Court and wins -Worchester v. Georgia ruled Georgia not entitled to regulate the Cherokee, nor invade their lands -Jackson ignores the court and orders removal by force which becomes known as the Trail of Tears, 25% of the Cherokee died


9 Indian Policy

10 National Bank -Jackson disliked the Bank of the U.S. -thought it was an abuse of power and served the wealthy first -thought it lacked the constitutional ability to exist despite McCulloch v. Maryland Time to renew the bank-- -Jackson vetoed the new charter for the bank and withdrew all gov’t funds -Jackson placed gov’t funds in favored state banks which critics called the “Pet Banks” which led to a monetary crisis

11 Van Buren Martin Van Buren was elected after Jackson (Democrat) -suffered b/c of Jackson’s bank policies -Panic of left many in bad economic situations - Many banks closed - Bankrupted businesses - More than 1/3 of population unemployed -Newly formed Whig party gains strength, oppose Jackson, favor American system (leaders included Henry Clay, John Q. Adams, Daniel Webster)

12 Harrison and Tyler - War hero William Henry Harrison becomes first Whig President and he wants to enact the American System - ran on the slogan: “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!” - Harrison dies 1 month into office (from pneumonia) John Tyler is first V.P. to become President on ballot to pick-up Southern votes, his goals do not match Whig party goals

13 Review Questions What two politicians were elected president after campaigning as the candidate of the “common man”? John C. Calhoun and Andrew Jackson William Henry Harrison and John Tyler Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay

14 What part of the national government did Andrew Jackson feel was bad for the nation? a. Judicial Review b. National Bank c. American System d. Spoils System

15 What issue was brought to the surface by the Tariffs of 1828. a
What issue was brought to the surface by the Tariffs of 1828? a. state vs. federal power b. checks and balances c. imperialism d. taxing of southern exports

16 What federal act led South Carolina to call a state convention to nullify it? a. Indian Removal Act b. The Stamp Act c. The Tariff of d. The Homestead Act

17 Which best describes the idea behind a claim that a state can cancel a federal law that it considers unconstitutional? A. secession B. nullification C. abolition D. compromise

18 How are the changes in the suffrage requirements best summarized during the Jackson Era? A. only males could vote B. only white males could vote C. only white males owning property could vote D. only white men and women could vote

19 How can the moving of Native Americans from their lands best be assessed? A. as unjust B. as unnecessary C. as good diplomacy for the nation D. as beneficial to Native Americans

20 Which reason best explains why the theory of nullification was widely supported in the South?
Southerners believed states had the right to determine whether federal laws were constitutional Southerners wanted to continue buying manufactured goods from Britain Southerners wanted to divide the U.S. into two separate countries Southerners did not want to pay the high tariffs passed by Congress

21 What was Jackson’s reasons for opposing the Second Bank of the U.S.?
Jackson liked big banks, just not the Bank of the U.S. He saw it as a tool of the upper classes and a threat to democracy He didn’t like the manager of the bank His family had lost all of its savings when the first national bank closed

22 How did the Cherokee react to the Indian Removal Act?
The Cherokee decided to move to the Oklahoma Territory on their own accord They tried to assassinate Andrew Jackson The Cherokee refused to accept the decision of the Courts to uphold the Act They appealed to the U.S. courts in the case Worchester v. Georgia

23 What is the spoils system?
A policy developed by Harrison to determine what land the Indians received A policy of giving the worst jobs to the losers in the government A policy of treating all employees equally A policy of giving appointed positions to one’s friends and supporters

24 What impact did the Panic of 1837 have on the election of 1840?
It gave more power to the Whig Party, leading to Harrison’s election Van Buren had to fight harder, but still won the election The Democratic Party dissolved completely None of the above

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