Presentation on theme: "GEOGRAPHY, POLITICS, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Russia at the start of the twentieth century."— Presentation transcript:
GEOGRAPHY, POLITICS, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Russia at the start of the twentieth century
Background - geography 1894 imperial Russia covered 8 million square miles (two and a half times the size of the US today) Covered a large part of two continents Most of the population was concentrated in European Russia It was this part that Russia’s major historical developments had occurred Moscow and St Petersburg (capital) were situated here Between 1815 and 1914 the population quadrupled from 40 million to 165 million Contained a wide variety of people of different race, language, religion and culture.
The system of government The Emperor of all the Russians is an autocratic and unlimited monarch; God himself ordains that all must bow to his supreme power; not only out of fear but also out of conscience.’ Article 1, Fundamental Laws of the Empire, 1832 Russia was an autocracy governed by an absolute ruler called the tsar (emperor) Since 1613 Russian tsars had been members of the Romanov dynasty
Reform and Reaction In 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated Russia’s 25 million serfs and placed them in Mirs On 13 March 1881 Alexander II, the ‘Tsar Liberator’ was assassinated by a terrorist group called The People’s Will. Alexander III became Tsar. He ended any further political reform and introduced repressive policies (Okhrana).
From 1894 Tsar Nicholas II ruled the Russian Empire “Nicholas had no knowledge of the world or of men, of politics or government to help him make the difficult and weighty decisions that the Tsar alone must make. The only guiding stars that he recognized were the inherited belief in the moral rightness of autocracy, and a religious faith that he was in God’s hands and his actions were divinely inspired.” Hans Rogger, Russia in the Age of Modernization and Revolution, 1983
You are being asked to give the message of the source, to read between the lines of what is written. You could begin your answer ‘This source suggests that…’. This should help you to get a message or messages from the sources. Tips Avoid repeating the content. Look for key words in the source that might lead to inferences. Avoid using phrases such as ‘This source shows/tells….’ A) Inference Questions
A cartoon published by Russian socialists in 1900 showing their interpretation of Russian society under the Tsars. What can we infer from this source about Russia at the start of the twentieth century? (3 marks) Society
Review Write down definitions of the following key terms from the lesson today: Autocracy A government in which one person has unrestricted control over others. Emancipation of the serfs Issued in 1861 by Alexander II. This abolished serfdom in the Russian empire and gave landless peasants the full rights of free citizens. Mir A village commune where land was owned collectively. After 1861 serfs were forced to live in Mirs Russification The adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attributes (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. This was a policy followed by Alexander III Okhrana The secret police force used by the Tsars for repression Censorship To ban or cut parts of a newspaper, book, film etc which the government does not like