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VCE History: Unit 3 Life in the land of the Tsars.

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1 VCE History: Unit 3 Life in the land of the Tsars

2 The Romanov Dynasty, a series of rulers beginning with Michael Romanov, began in 1613. The old regime of tsarism reflected a political system of autocracy and a social hierarchy of privileges for the gentry and inequality for the industrial workers and peasants. But did this mean that revolution was inevitable?

3 Life in the land of the Tsars Russian psychology: ‘like a colony of bees…Russian society [would] cease to exist without the Tsar’ – August Von Haxthausen Laws of the Empire (issued in 1716 and again in 1832): ‘an autocratic and unlimited monarch… god himself demands his supreme power be obeyed’. Like many before him Nicholas believed Autocracy to be a ‘sacred trust’ and that it was his role to pass this on to his own son.

4 How stable was tsarist Russia?

5 Times of Trouble: False Dmitri’s!

6 Times of Trouble

7 Life in the land of the Tsars LeaderChangesChallenges Michael of Russia (1613-1645)Elected as Tsar after the ‘Time of Troubles’ He (well his dad) restored order, changed peasantry to serfdom (slaves), obtained peace with Sweden and Poland. Russia in chaos Occupying nations Leg injury Young (17) and peaceful nature Some corrupt officials No male heir Peter the Great (1682-1725) Drive to ‘westernise’ Russia. Built capital city in St. Petersburg. Loved warfare – played with real people – and sailing. Increased military. Battle for throne after Alexis death. Raised taxes, increased military with industry. Won battle with Sweden. Made Russia ‘respected’ nation. Catherine the Great (1762- 1796) Influenced by enlightenment. Encouraged education, leading to development of ‘intelligentsia’ class. Educated classes would one day lead ‘liberation’ of the Russian people. Was a German princess. Husband was killed. Faced a peasant revolt in 1773.

8 Life in the Land of the Tsars LeaderChangesChallenge Nicholas I (1825-1855) Increased use of censorship and secret police. Decembrist (1825) revolt by military – threatened by conservative views, wanted a constitution. Nationalism led to racism against minorities. Prussian alliance. Clash between ‘Westerners’ and ‘slavophiles’ who wanted to protect Russian culture. Opposition to autocratic rule emerges through writers, including Trotsky. Alexander II (1855-1881)Issued Edict of Emancipation, abolishing serfdom for 40 million peasants. Gave freedom but not land. Established the Mir with controlled land redistribution, the Zemstvos with elected local councils Crimean War against Turkish Empire revealed major problems. Assassinated by revolutionary group ‘The People’s Will’. This led to ‘the reaction’, a political repression. Alexander III (1881-1894) Short reign in a ‘reactionary period’ defending dynasty.

9 Activity – The Romanov’s

10 The Romanov’s ReignEventsChangeInitiatedForcedImplications Michael I Peter the Great Catherine the Great Nicholas I Alexander II Nicholas II

11 Tsar Nicholas II Questions on page 9 1) 2) 3) 4)

12 Influences The GovernmentThe Bureacracy The PoliceThe Church

13 Visual Analysis

14 Social Structure

15 Questions Questions on page 14 1) 2)

16 Questions Questions on page 15 1) 2) 3)

17 Questions Questions on page 20 Key Concepts Autocracy Implementing Tsarism Social Structures Economic Backwardness Key Leaders Tsar Nicholas II Sergei Witte

18 Questions Questions on page 20 1) 2) 3) 4)

19 Extra readings and podcasts Nicholas and Alexandra: The Tragic, Compelling Story of the Last Tsar and his Family. Massie, R Nicholas and Alexandra: Their Own Story Andrei Maylunas & Sergei Mironenko Power and Privilege David Christian Who was Tsar Dmitrii? Chester Dunning A tale of False Dmitri Stuff you missed in History class (search iTunes) What happened to the Romanov’s Stuff you missed in History class (search iTunes)

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