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19 th Century Russia The lead up to the Revolution.

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1 19 th Century Russia The lead up to the Revolution

2 Background Information Russian Empire was geographically enormous and lasted for almost two hundred years (1721-1917) Had a large variety of languages and cultures within its empire Main religion is Russian Orthodox Christianity Slow to industrialize compared to other European powers, mostly rural Empire was formed during the reign of Peter the Great

3 Alexander II Ruled from 1855-1881 Emancipated the Serfs in 1861, earned him the nickname “Alexander the Liberator” Abolished capital punishment Reduced the power of the nobility Despite all of these positive changes, used brutal secret police to exile dissidents Assassinated in 1881, succeeded by his son Alexander III

4 Russia Vocabulary Serf = a person in a condition of servitude, required to render services to a lord, commonly attached to the lord's land and transferred with it from one owner to another. Slavophile = one of a group of mid-19th century Russian intellectuals who favored traditional cultural practices over Western innovations, especially in political and religious life. Emancipate = to free (a slave) from bondage. Abdicate = to renounce or relinquish a throne, right, power, claim, responsibility, or the like, especially in a formal manner Capital punishment = punishment by death for a crime; death penalty Russification = is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one Proletariat = workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).

5 Alexander III Ruled 1881-1894 Was a Slavophile Known as the “Peacemaker” because no major wars were fought during his rule Began policies of Russification

6 Nicholas II Ruled 1894-1917 His rule saw Russia move from one of the greatest world powers to almost total economic and military collapse Known as “the Bloody” for violently suppressing revolutions and for his military campaigns Forced to abdicate in 1917, killed 1918

7 Nicholas II Continued Wanted to Industrialize Russia, this put stress on the lower classes Considered himself a military commander and took control during times of war This was disastrous during WWI, contributed to Revolution

8 Russo-Japanese War 2/8/1904-9/5/1905 Major embarrassment for Russia Russia and Japan fighting for imperial control of Manchuria and Korea Russia also wanted a warm water port in the Pacific Nicholas II kept Russia in the war after numerous defeats

9 Bloody Sunday Sunday, January 22 1905 Unarmed protestors in St. Petersburg are led by a Priest to bring a petition to Nicholas II Fired upon by the Imperial Guard 96 killed and 333 injured; anti-government sources reported much larger numbers Nicholas was not at the location and did not give the order to fire, but was still blamed as he did not handle the crisis with sensitivity Seen as one of the major events contributing to the Russian Revolution Resulted in the October Manifesto, through which Nicholas II created the Duma, a legislative body This effectively gave all Russians the right to vote; no law could come into effect without being voted upon Constitution was created the following year (1906) following the goals of the Duma

10 Beginnings of the Revolution Bolsheviks (Red) Led by Vladimir Lenin Wanted a revolutionary group that was small, elite, and disciplined Wanted “professional” revolutionaries Wanted to overthrow the Tsar and take over Strongly nationalistic Mensheviks (White) Led by Julius Martov Wanted a large, working class revolution Democratically organized Believed that the revolution could be a transition of power from the Tsar to a democratic system

11 Rasputin Started life as a peasant but became an influential friend of Nicholas II’s family Mystical Faith Healer Nicholas II’s wife trusted him closely with the health of their son Seen by some as the most powerful man in the Imperial government This controversy affected public perception against the Royal Family Assassinated in 1916

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