Presentation on theme: " ESL program is one that “provides instruction in the English language and other courses of study using teaching techniques for acquiring English, and..."— Presentation transcript:
ESL program is one that “provides instruction in the English language and other courses of study using teaching techniques for acquiring English, and... incorporates the cultural aspects of the pupil’s experience in his instruction.”
Instruction is always presented in a meaningful context and it is categorized by three phases: ESL I (Beginner), ESL II (Intermediate), and ESL III (Advanced). These phases are based on a child's English proficiency. Children begin their second language acquisition by starting somewhere in these phases. The outcome of this instructional process must enable children to listen, comprehend, speak, read, write, analyze and think in English.
The goals of all of these programs are: (1) to help ESL/EFL students achieve comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing competence in the English language; (2) to enable students to maintain grade level status; and (3) to enable students to meet graduation standards.
Several variables influence the kind of program required to operate in any given place: 1- Student population to be served. 2- Individual student characteristics. 3- Institution resources.
Some institutions have large, relatively stable populations of ESL/EFL students from a single language or cultural background. Others have large groups of ESL/EFL students representing several language backgrounds. On the other hand, some institutions have very small number of ESL/EFL students from many different language groups. Characteristics of these populations--including the numbers and kinds of students per language group, the size of language groups and the mobility of their members, as well as geographic and grade distribution of students--influence the type of ESL/EFL instructional program design that any educational institution could develop to serve its students.
Characteristics of individual students can influence ESL/EFL program type. Some students enter U.S. schools with strong academic preparation in their native language. They have attended school in their own country, have learned to read and write well in their first language, and are at comparable (or better) levels in such content areas as mathematics. Other students may not have had such extensive academic preparation. Due to social, economic, or cultural factors, their schooling may have been interrupted or never begun. Some students at every age level come with little or no exposure to reading and writing, with no basic linguistic abilities.
Availability of resources varies from place to place. Some have trained ESL/EFL teachers, while others are scrambling to find someone to work with a few students on a volunteer basis. Some establishments are experiencing declining enrollments, freeing up classroom space to allow for such designs. In others it seem impossible to find classroom space to house an ESL/EFL program. Thus, the capability of educational institutions to provide human and material resources will greatly influence the type of ESL/EFL program organization that will be developed.
Content-Based Integrated and Content- Based Self-Contained ESL Programs: The goal of both the Content-Based Integrated and Content-Based Self-Contained approaches is the acquisition of English and grade level academics so that the ELL student can succeed in an English-only classroom. Both approaches have the following features:
all instruction is done in English; when possible, the child’s primary language is used to clarify instruction; English is taught through reading, language arts, math, science, and social studies; there is a strong English language development (ELD) component in every lesson; the acquisition of English takes place in a structured, non-threatening environment in which students feel comfortable taking risks; and lessons include controlled vocabulary while students gradually acquire the necessary language skills to succeed academically and become lifelong learners.
The possible classroom configurations could consist of the following: Self-Contained ESL Classrooms : The principal assigns only ELL students to Self-Contained classrooms. ELL students are grouped together for their core subjects, but have the opportunity to interact with other students in music, art, physical education, library and lunch. Lessons are planned according to students’ English language proficiency levels.
Integrated 50/50 ESL Classrooms : The principal assigns approximately an equal proportion of students who need ELL services to native English speakers. English is taught to ELL students through content areas by including a strong English language development component. Emphasis is on cooperative learning and use of English-speaking role models, hands-on activities, visuals, demonstrations, and modeling. Integrated “Group” Classrooms : If a school or a grade has a low number of ELL students, the principal shall group students in a classroom at the appropriate grade level and will ensure that ELL strategies are used in the classroom.
Generally, schools or grade levels with a low number of ELL students should group students and place them in an integrated grouped classroom model where ESL instructional strategies are employed. Schools or grade levels with a large number of ELL students shall implement Self-Contained ESL classrooms or Integrated ESL Classrooms. An Integrated 50/50 ESL classroom shall have an approximately equal number of students who need ELL services and students who are native English speakers. Self- Contained classes shall include ELL students only.
In ESL pull-out programs students from one or more classrooms or grade levels attend special intensive language classes for part of each day. In other cases, the ESL specialist may work with ELL’s in their own classrooms and acts as a resource to their regular classroom teachers.
Sheltered Content ESL Instruction: It is a content-based instruction which refers to content courses taught in the second language by a content area specialists to a group of ESL/EFL learners who have been grouped together for this purpose. The Sheltered Content ESL Instruction Model is an integrated content language approach. The goal of the Sheltered Content Instruction Model is for ELL students to develop English language skills in content classes. Secondary ELL students have a limited time to become academically proficient in English. Therefore, they must learn both English and academic content as quickly as possible. English is taught through content areas by including a strong language development component.
The purpose of the language development component is to teach English language learners to communicate (listen, speak, read, and write) in English. This component takes into account the ELL student’s current English language proficiency level and guides the teacher in providing the appropriate instruction for each level. This model is implemented at the secondary level in both self-contained and integrated classrooms.
A self-contained classroom consists of only ELL students grouped together for instruction. An integrated classroom consists of students who need ELL services and native English speakers. At the high school level, this model also allows students to earn credit toward graduation in required core subject areas. Emphasis is on cooperative learning, hands-on activities, visuals, demonstrations, modeling and sheltered vocabulary.