Dual Language Programs Defining Terms Defining Options Defining Results.
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Dual Language Programs Defining Terms Defining Options Defining Results
Defining Terms Dual language education: a)An umbrella term encompassing all programs in which two languages are used as the medium for delivering academic content b)A program in which half of each class is made up of speakers of English and the other half, speakers of the target language c)A form of bilingual education d)All of the above
Defining Terms Bilingual education Two way immersion/Dual language Foreign Language immersion
Defining Terms IMMERSION Uses two languages for instruction Serves students of majority language backgrounds Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language and in home language Use of home language gradually increased Additive bilingualism BILINGUAL EDUCATION Uses two languages for instruction Serves students of minority language backgrounds Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language Use of home language gradually decreased Subtractive bilingualism DUAL LANGUAGE/TWO-WAY IMMERSION Uses two languages for instruction, with the home language of minority students used for most of the school day in 90-10 models. Serves students proficient in English and students learning English Goal includes high levels of proficiency in new language and in home language. Use of both languages for about 50% of the school either from kindergarten (50-50 model) or by grade 3. Additive bilingualism
Research For data on program outcomes see www.lindholm-leary.com
Defining Options Populations: Speakers of English Heritage learners a)Proficient in English b)Learners of English Time: a) 90-10 b) 50-50 c) other
Dual Language Programs in Portland Public Schools Overview of PPS Programs Programs Goals and Concepts Model Variables Strengths and Challenges Resources
10 Programs 4 Languages K-12 20 year history Diverse settings Diverse learner populations Languages: –7 Spanish –1 Japanese –1 Mandarin –1 Russian
Immersion Program Goals The immersion language is used to learn subject matter content. Math, Science, Reading, Writing, Social Studies or The Arts may be selected as appropriate content subjects. Language learning will also occur in the context of real life situations and help students interact in social situations. Age appropriate instructional strategies and activities will be key instructional components, including content, language and cultural objectives. Language and content curriculum are articulated using materials at an age-appropriate content level. Expressive and receptive language development is emphasized at all stages of the program. The program provides ways to motivate learning a second language. It encourages language and cultural enrichment activities such as summer programs, exchanges and travel.
Key Immersion Concepts To develop high level of proficiency in reading, writing, speaking and listening in two languages. To develop high academic performance in all content areas. To develop a deep understanding and appreciation of other cultures. To develop skills in cross cultural communication and a sense of responsible global citizenship. To develop the ability to study and communicate across the curriculum in two languages. To develop competence in social interactions in the two languages.
Varying Models in PPS Model Variables/ Language SpanishMandarinRussianJapanese Learners 6 Two Way 1 One Way 1 Two Way1 One Way Time Allocation 4 90:10 3 50:50 50:5070:3050:50
Other Impacting Variables One Teacher vs. Two Teachers Content Allocation - what content do you teach in the target language Specials role in program Homogenous L1 Groupings for native literacy or L2 Language development All School vs. Program within a School Self Selection vs. mandated Special Education/TAG/ESL SES
Strengths of Our Programs Committed Teachers District Commitment to K-12 Strong community support High interest from families Model programs in district to draw upon for support Collaboration with higher ed. Data indicates academic and linguistic successes
Challenges in Implementation Adequate language and literacy development Appropriate curriculum materials both linguistically and developmentally Supporting varying program models and languages Dearth of research around non-cognate languages Obtaining good data around language and literacy development Addressing special ed. Issues Finding qualified and certified teachers
Resources Center for Applied Linguistics www.cal.org www.cal.org Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition www.carla.umn.edu www.carla.umn.edu