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Lesson 05 Cinematography Lesson 05: Cinematography Professor Aaron Baker.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 05 Cinematography Lesson 05: Cinematography Professor Aaron Baker."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 05 Cinematography Lesson 05: Cinematography Professor Aaron Baker

2 2 Previous Lecture Editing Continuity and Discontinuity The Limey (1999)

3 In This Lecture… The Photographic Image Lenses Framing Camera Movement The Long Take Cinematography in Raging Bull (1980) 3

4 Part I: The Photographic Image 4

5 Cinematography Cinematography Literally, Writing in Movement Uses Photography (Writing with Light) Light Inscribes Patterns on Film Strip to Make Shots 5

6 Film Stocks Emulsion on Film Stock Records Image Made with Light Fast Stock – Sensitive to Light, More Contrast Slower Stock – Less Sensitive, Less Contrast Contrast = Difference Between Light and Dark Areas 6

7 High Contrast Technicolor Stock Saturated Colors Special Camera, Processing 7

8 Processing Color Timing – Change Color Chemically, Digitally 1.Tinting – With Dye Add Color to BXW; Lighter Areas 2.Toning – With Dye Color Added to Darker Areas 8

9 Exposure How much light passes thru lens Filters - Day for Night/Blue -Glamour/Diffusion 9 Clarence Sinclair Bull’s study of Gary Cooper, done for MGM in 1934Gary CooperMGM

10 Frames Per Second (FPS) Rate at which Film passes thru Camera/Projector 24 FPS - Sound Film More FPS Projected than Shot = Fast Motion Why Silent Films Sometimes Jerky Shot at 16-20, Shown at 24 FPS 10

11 Slow Motion Overcranking Film Shot at More FPS than Projected Director Sam Peckinpah used slow motion for violence. The Wild Bunch (1969) 11

12 Time Lapse and High Speed Photography Shot slow, few frames: One per minute or hour Many frames shot per second to capture rapid movement The Matrix 300 FPS Slow Motion 12

13 Part II: Lenses 13

14 Perspective Lens – like eye, controls light Focal Length Can Change Controls Perspective: How we See What we See 14

15 Three Lenses Wide Angle: <35mm; Bulge, Depth Middle Focal Length: Like Eye Telephoto: Long Focal Length; Flattens Space 15

16 Zoom Lens Can Change Focal Length Change Perspective Within a Shot Please watch a zoom out shot from Ocean’s Eleven (2001)

17 Racking Focus Changes Perspective within Shot Focus Changed When we first see Wilson in The Limey (1999) the camera racks focus. 17

18 Depth of Field Focal Length Impacts Shape and Scale of Image Also How Much of Space in Focus Deep Focus 18

19 Deep Focus Foreground, Middle- ground, Background All in Focus 1940s Faster Film, Shorter Lenses, More intense lighting Show More, Less Cutting

20 Special Effects Superimposition: One Image Over Another Process/Composite Shots: E.g. Back Projection 20

21 Compositing Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) Different Images Joined in One Shot 21

22 Part III: Framing 22

23 Framing Creates Different Points of View Defines Image Stable Mobile 23

24 24 Aspect Ratio Ratio Width/Height of Image 1:33:1 = Academy (1930s-50s) 1:85:1 = Now 1:66:1 = Europe 2:35:1 = Cinemascope

25 Widescreen Image Anamorphic Lens Squeezes wide image to fit on 35 mm film When shown widens image back to larger aspect ratio 25

26 Framing Impacts… What’s Visible But Also from What Angle What Distance From a Static or Moving Perspective 26

27 Angles Low – Looking up High – Seeing Down Canted – Tipped 27

28 Shot Distance How Far Camera is from What Filming Gauged in Relation to Human Figures 28

29 Shot Distances Extreme Long Shot (ELS) Long Shot (LS) 29

30 More Shot Distances Medium Long Shot (MLS) Medium Shot (MS) Close Up (CU) Extreme Close Up (ECU) 30

31 Part IV: Camera Movement 31

32 Mobile Framing Pan – Side to Side on Fixed Axis Tilt - Up/Down on Fixed Axis Track or Dolly – Camera moves In/Out or Laterally Crane – In/Out, Laterally, Up/Down 32

33 Hand Held Camera Mobility Unstable Image Associated with Documentary Realism Steady cam 33

34 Reframing Most Common Camera Movement Keeps Characters Centered Stays with Character Movement 34

35 Part V: The Long Take 35

36 Cinematography and Duration Early Cinema, 1890s-1910s = Longer Shot Duration Classical Cinema/Continuity Editing = More Cutting, Shorter Shot Duration 1930s Filmmakers Experiment with Long Take = Shots of Longer Duration 36

37 French Theorist: Andre Bazin Long Take and Deep Focus More Realism Less Alteration of Pro-Filmic Reality 37 Jean Renoir’s The Rules of the Game 1939

38 Touch of Evil (1956) Orson Welles Long Take, Camera Movement Opening Shot = 3 minutes, 30 seconds Please watch a scene from Touch of Evil to see a long take 38

39 One Shot Establishes… Location (Two Countries) Noir Ambiance Major Characters Violent Crime at Center of Story 39

40 Part VI: Cinematography in Raging Bull 40

41 Realism and Stylization Violence and Dysfunction 41 Combination

42 Violence Common in Hollywood Films Entertainment Genres: –Crime Films –Sci-Fi –Horror 42

43 Boxing Films Graphic Less Entertaining Hard Life of Fighters Fewer Special Effects Hand Held Camerwork 43

44 Raging Bull Graphic & Visually Stylized Opening Slow Motion Stylized - Grace Matches His Violence Long Shot Allow Critical Distance Ropes Suggest Ring Imprisons LaMotta 44

45 Fight Scenes Closer Shots Handheld Camera Put Spectator Close to Violence, Blood, Pain 45

46 Scenes Outside Ring Jake’s Social Dysfunction More Medium and Long Shots Encourage Critical Distance for Viewer 46

47 Last Robinson Fight Shots from Jake’s Perspective Expressionist (Dark) Lighting Track In/Zoom Out Makes Robinson Look Monstrous Please watch this clip from Raging Bull 47

48 48 Discussion Questions What state of mind does this cinematography suggest for the Jake LaMotta character? Why does he see Sugar Ray Robinson in this way? After viewing the film, post your response on the eBoard to these questions and to the comment of a colleague.

49 Summary Cinematography -Image -Framing -Long take -Realism/Stylization in Raging Bull 49

50 End of Lecture 5 50 Next Lecture: Genre

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